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改革开放以来中国松紧性的变化
Alternative TitleThe change of tightness-looseness in China since reform and opening-up
谢怡萍
Contributor蔡华俭
2021-06
Abstract松紧性是一个重要的文化维度,它反映了一个文化群体的社会规范强度和对偏差行为的容忍程度,与社会秩序或社会创造力密切相关。改革开放以来,中国社会发生了巨大的变化,中国文化松紧性随之发生了什么变化? 哪些社会生态因素可以解释这些变化?这些变化产生了哪些影响?论文开展了四项研究来回答这些问题。 研究一利用中国综合社会调查2005 年与2015 年两期数据来探讨公共领域和私人领域松紧性的变化。以人们自身对偏差行为的容忍度作为松紧性指标,跨代和跨年比较的结果均显示:公共领域松紧性趋紧,私人领域松紧性趋松。研究二利用对94 名中老年人的回溯性问卷调查来探讨整体松紧性、公共领域和私人领域松紧性在更大时间跨度(八十年代与当前)的变化。结果显示:(1)整体松紧性趋紧,公共领域松紧性趋紧,但私人领域松紧性趋松;(2)两个特定领域的松紧性是相对独立的,通过主观感知测量到的整体松紧性与公共领域松紧性关系更为密切。 研究三采用文化产品法探讨松紧性变化趋势,并结合时间序列分析技术探讨松紧性的社会生态成因及松紧性对社会创造力的影响。研究首先结合文献分析和词向量技术构建了松与紧两方面的词表,接着利用该词表对Google Ngram Corpus(1970~2008)的内容进行分析。结果显示:(1)紧文化与松文化同时呈现上升的趋势;(2)经济增长可解释松文化的上升,传染病威胁的减少可解释紧文化的上升;(3)未有证据表明松紧性能影响社会创造力。 研究四采用与研究三相同的方法分析另一文化产品——《人民日报》(1970~2014)的文本以检验研究三的结果的稳健性。结果显示:(1)与研究三相同,紧文化和松文化均呈现上升趋势,经济增长可解释松文化的上升;(2)与研究三不同,经济增长和法律制度的完善可解释紧文化的上升;(3)紧文化和松文化的上升均可解释社会创造力的上升。 综上所述,改革开放以来,中国松紧性既有变紧的一面(如,公共领域),也有变松的一面(如,私人领域);经济增长是松文化上升的主要驱动因素,其他社会生态因素对松紧性变化的预测力有限或尚无法确定;松紧性的变化可影响社会创造力。这些发现在理论上丰富和拓展了我们对松紧性及中国文化变迁的认识,在实践上对当代中国的社会治理实践与社会创造力培育有所启示。
Other AbstractTightness-looseness, an important cultural dimension, captures the strength of social norm and tolerance towards deviant behaviors in a cultural group, and is found to closely related to social order and societal creativity. Since the reform and opening up, China has undergone tremendous societal changes, how has the tightness-looseness changed in China? What socio-ecological factors lead to these changes? What possible implications are caused by these changes? Four studies were conducted to answer these questions. Study 1 utilized the 2005 and 2015 data of Chinese General Social Survey to investigate the change of tightness-looseness in public domain and private domain. Using people’s tolerance towards deviant behaviors as the indicator of tightnesslooseness, both comparison among cohorts and comparison between years showed that culture has become tighter in public domain but has become looser in private domain. Study 2 conducted a retrospective survey of 94 middle-aged and elderly people to explore the change of general tightness and tightness in public and private domain across a longer period of time(1980s vs. present). Results showed that 1) general tightness has rose; 2) tightness in public domain has increased, while tightness in private domain has decreased; 3) tightness in public domain and private domain were relatively independent and general tightness measured by subjective perception correlated with tightness in public domain more. By employing culture product method, Study 3 not only investigated the change of tightness-looseness, but also explored what socio-ecological factors can explain it and whether it can explain the change of societal creativity with time-series analysis method. The study first established word lists of both tightness and looseness by combining literature analysis and word vector technique, and then used this lists to analyze the content of Google Ngram Corpus(1970~2008). Results showed that: 1) an overall rising tendency was evident for both tightness and looseness; 2) economic growth has brought the rise of looseness and the reduction of pathogen threat can explain the rise of tightness; 3) no evidence supported the causal relationship between tightness-looseness and societal creativity. Study 4 made use of another culture product, the text in People’s Daily (1970~2014), to examine whether the results of study 3 are robust or not. Results showed that 1) consistent with findings in study 3, both tightness and looseness have been on the rise and economic growth can explain the rise of looseness; 2) inconsistent with study 3, economic growth and the development of legal system can explain the change of tightness; 3) both the rise of tightness and looseness can lead to the enhancement of societal creativity. Taken together, since thereform and opening-up, both a rising tendency of tightness(e.g., in public domain) and looseness(e.g., in private domain) has been witnessed in China; what is more, economic growth is the main driving force of the rise of looseness while other socio-ecological factors exhibited limited or inconclusive predictive power; both tightness and looseness can affect societal creativity. These findings not only enrich our understanding of tightness-looseness and cultural change in China, but also have implications for China’s practices of social administration and cultivation of societal creativity.
Keyword松紧性 中国 文化 社会变迁
Subtype硕士
Language中文
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline基础心理学(人格与社会心理学)
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39585
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
谢怡萍. 改革开放以来中国松紧性的变化[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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