|Other Abstract||Background: Action anticipation refers to the high- level thinking process in which an individual actively infers the behavior of others based on the existing perceptual information before the behavior occurs. The main feature of it is that the expected result has a high degree of uncertainty, which is a hotspots of concern in cognitive science. From an evolutionary point of view, great action anticipation has extremely high survival significance and can help organisms better deal with the challenges brought by the external environment. The field of competitive sports is the best window to explore action anticipation. Correct action anticipation are particularly critical for athletes to win. It helps athletes make better use of prior information to make faster and more accurate judgments and decisions. Although action anticipation is crucial to human development and achievement, it involves more complicated information processing, so the process of it is vague, and its brain mechanism is also unclear.
Objective: 1) To explore the experts’ outstanding brain area and superior brain network of action anticipation based on task-state fMRI; 2) To findig the action anticipation brain region coordination and important brain nodes in badminton experts in resting state fMRI, and verify the consistency of brain mechanism by other ball experts.
Methods: the first study was to explore the action anticipation brain mechanism through two levels of task state and rest state fMRI. The study 1 based on the whole-brain MRI task state, using the meta-analysis method of activation likelihood estimation, from the perspective of the whole-brain expert-novice paradigm, found that experts have relatively consistent superior brain areas when performing action anticipation. The role of Yeo brain network model in action anticipation is also investigated from the aspect of large-scale brain network, The relative comparison between the brain area and Yeo brain network of action anticipation was analyzed; The study 2 adopting a across-control design, starting with different sports in the resting state fMRI. The repetition and consistency of brain function activities between ball experts and novices when performing the expected tasks of action, discovering key brain areas closely related to action anticipation, and looking for important biological markers of action anticipation. Specifically, based on the results of the first study, the functional connectivity analysis between the seed point and the whole brain is carried out, and the more stable internal brain activities behind the action anticipation are considered, and the method of graph theory and local consistency is combined to investigate the important "transportation hub in the brain" and brain mechanism. In addition, through table tennis experts (n = 15, gender 8, male, 7 female, age: 20.00 ± 1.93) and ordinary people (n = 14, gender 8, male, 6, female, age 20. 43±1.50) In order to verify the consistency of the brain mechanism of action anticipation, the same data analysis was conducted between the data of act ion anticipation and brain mechanism.
Results: The first study founds that experts have relatively consistent superior brain areas when performing action anticipation. Including the superior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, precentral gyrus and frontal pole; in addition, the large scale correlative comparisons show that the ventral attention network, the dorsal attention network and the frontoparietal network play a relatively important role in action anticipation;The second study shows that the local consistency of the cerebellum and precuneus of badminton experts is significantly higher than that of novices; the degree centrality of the cerebellum and angular gyrus of experts is significantly correlated with the accuracy of action anticipation. Compared with the novice, the functional connection between the expert-assisted movement area and the precentral gyrus in the action expectation is significantly lower than that of the novice. In addition, the data from table tennis experts and ordinary people's action anticipation and brain images verify that the precuneus has a cross-center consistency in action anticipation.
Conclusion: It can be seen that the information processing method used by sports experts to complete action anticipation is significantly better than that of novices. There are two reasons: Firstly, experts in the task state have different brain network neural representation patterns in action anticipation, including the superior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, precentral gyrus and frontal pole; Secondly in the resting state, the anterior cuneiform lobe has considerable stability in functional activities in different antagonistic ball events. In addition, the cerebellum is also a key brain area related to action anticipation. The results of the study show that experts have the advantage of functional activity in both large-scale brain networks and local brain areas. The precuneus and cerebellum are the key brain areas for resting state to calculate behavior. On the one hand, this research reveals the brain processing mechanism of action anticipation. On the other hand, these consistent research findings provide a strong scientific basis for athlete selection and training effect evaluation.|