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Alternative TitleThe change of ideal affect in China over the past decades
Abstract理想情绪指人们理想中想体验的情绪,与文化密切相关。已有研究发现不同文化背景下的个体有不同的理想情绪。具体地,个体主义文化下的个体更偏好高唤醒积极情绪,集体主义文化下的个体更偏好低唤醒积极情绪。大量研究显示,过去几十年来,在世界范围内,个人主义在上升,集体主义在式微。在这种背景下,与文化密切相关的理想情绪是否也会发生变化?如果有变化,那变化的趋势和背后的影响因素又有哪些?本研究首次采用多种方法,从多个角度对这些问题进行了系统的探讨。 研究一采用回溯法,让在八十年代初已经进入学龄期的参与者评价八十年代初、 200 0 年初和 2020 年前后中国人理想中想体验的和实际体验到的情绪。结果发现,中国人对高唤醒积极情绪和低唤醒积极情绪的偏好都呈现出显著的上升趋势。 研究二通过跨代比较,让50 岁左右及以上的参与者评价祖辈、子辈和孙辈理想中想体验的和实际体验到的情绪。结果发现,三代人对高唤醒积极情绪的偏好呈现出显著上升趋势,但对低唤醒积极情绪的偏好没有显著变化。 研究三采用文化产品研究法,分析理想情绪量表中的中文情绪词在Google Ngram 数据库中出现的频率随年份的变化趋势。结果表明,中文高唤醒积极情绪词频呈现逐年下降的趋势,而 低唤醒积极情绪的变化不显著。 研究四也采用文化产品研究法,分析理想情绪量表中的情绪词在《人民日报》中出现的频率随年份的变化趋势。结果表明,高唤醒积极情绪的变化不显著,低唤醒积极情绪的变化也不显著。 研究五采用横断历史重构法,对大样本调查数据中的理想情绪及其相关因素进行分析。结果发现,在控制了其他因素后,城市化水平、受教育水平、集体主义和个体主义都正向预测中国人对高唤醒积极情绪和低唤醒积极情绪的偏好,然而人均 GDP 对高唤醒积极情绪和低唤醒积极情绪的偏好的预测作用不显著。 这些发现表明,无论高唤醒还是低唤醒,积极情绪都是中国人的理想情绪,且中国人对这些情绪的偏好呈现出不断上升的趋势。然而,中国人不喜欢甚至避免体验高、低唤醒的消极情绪,且对这些情绪的偏好在一定程度上呈现出不断下降的趋势。本研究第一次揭示了,过去几十年来,理想情绪在中国的变化情况,丰富了社会变迁对人的心理和行为影响的认识,并对中国当下的社会心理服务建设实践具有一定指导意义。
Other AbstractAs the affects that people want to experience, ideal affects are closely related to culture: while people in individualistic culture prefer high arousal positive affects (HAP), people in collectivistic culture prefer low arousal positive affects (LAP). Since an increasing tendency of individualism but a declining tendency of collectivism has been witnessed around the world, have the ideal affects also changed accordingly over the past decades? If so, what are the potential drives of these changes? In this research, for the first time, we conducted a series of studies in China to address these issues. In Study 1, participants (age ≥ 49, N = 84, SD = 8.8) were asked to assess the extent to which Chinese people want to experience and actually experience the HPA and the LAP. Results showed that the preference of both HAP and LAP manifested a significant rise over the past decades. In Study 2, participants aged (age ≥ 48, N = 94, SD = 9.22) were asked to assess the extent to which the three generations (grandparents, children and grandchildren) ideally want to experience and actually experience the HAP and LAP. Results indicated that the preference of HAP showed a significant rising trend, whereas the preference of LAP exhibited no change across three generations. In Study 3, the frequency of affect words in the Google Ngram database were analyzed year by year (from 1949 to 2009). The results showed that while the frequency of HAP words has been declining over years, the frequency of LAP words exhibited no change. In Study 4, the frequency of affect words in People's Daily was analyzed year by year (from 1946 to 2014). The results showed no significant changes of the use of HAP and LAP words. Study 5 examined potential drives of the change of ideal affects by using the data from a large survey (N = 26734). The results show that, urbanization, education, collectivism and individualism all positively predict Chinese preference for HAP and LAP, after controlling other potential confounding factors (e.g., age, gender, race). Overall, these findings support that positive affect including high arousal and low arousal states are the ideal affect of Chinese and that an rising tendency of preferences for these affects, while Chinese don't prefer negative affect including high arousal and low arousal states and even avoid experiencing these affects, and showing a falling tendency of preferences for these affects.The study show us the change of ideal affect in China over the past decades for the first time, thus enriching the understanding psychological impacts of societal change, and has a certain guide for the construction and practice of social psychological services in China.
Keyword理想情绪 实际情绪 文化变迁 个体主义 集体主义
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline基础心理学(人格与社会心理学)
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张明杨. 近几十年来中国人的理想情绪变迁[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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