|Other Abstract||In the process of China's rapid modernization, extensive and profound changes have taken place and continue to take place in Chinese culture and the psychology and behavior of the Chinese people. This paper explores the changes in gender roles of Chinese people over the past decades through four studies.
In Study 1, the gender roles of college students in 2008 and 2020 were compared in two different periods through cross-sectional comparative study to investigate the changes of gender roles. The results show that male college students score significantly higher than female college students in the measurement of masculinity and femininity. Moreover, regardless of gender and year, college students score significantly higher on femininity than on masculinity. Over time, masculinity declined significantly for both men and women, while masculinity increased for men only. In the distribution of gender role types, regardless of gender, there is an increase in androgyny and undifferentiation, while a decrease in masculinity and femininity.
In Study 2, cross-sectional historical meta-analysis was used to analyze the changes in the distribution of various types of gender roles of Chinese college students from 1993 to 2019. The results showed that with the change of time, the androgyny of female college students increased significantly, the femininity decreased significantly, and the masculinity increased but was not significant.
In Study 3, individuals who had grown up in the early stage of reform and opening up were allowed to trace their gender role changes around 1980, 2000 and 2020 through retrospective study. The results show that men's masculinity first increased and then decreased, while women's masculinity did not change much in the memories of those who experienced the reform and opening-up. The femininity of women increases with the increase of generation, and the femininity of men increases first and then decreases.
Study 4 examined Chinese perceived gender roles and their differences across generations (grandparents, parents, and grandchildren), and found that women became more masculine (Study 4A, Study 4B) and men became less masculine (Study 4A).
Research 5, we discuss the family from the individual level generational change in gender roles, combining qualitative research and quantitative research methods, we found that the men in the family of the woman in the perception of the grandchildren gas changes significantly, grandchildren > parents > grandparents, gas generation increase male in the family woman, said in the change of gender role types now double sex, gender role types with the increase of generation.
Five study based on different perspective on Chinese gender role changes are discussed in this paper, as the research object, research methods and research Angle of view is different, the results vary slightly, we compiled a more consistent conclusions: from 1993 to 2019, the gender role types distribution of Chinese, the typical (masculine and feminine) is reduced, the typical (bisexual, undifferentiated) increase (research 1, 2, 5);Female college students' femininity decreased (study 1, 4), while their masculinity increased (study 4, 5).These findings suggest that in the process of the modernization of Chinese society, the gender roles of Chinese people have changed to a certain extent, and they are moving forward in the pursuit of self-development.|