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1970-2020年中国人性别角色的变迁
Alternative TitleThe change of gender roles in China,1970-2020
朱慧珺
Contributor蔡华俭
2021-06
Abstract中国在高速现代化的过程中,中国文化和中国人的心理和行为发生了并在继续发生广泛而深刻的变化。本论文通过4个研究探讨了中国人的性别角色在过去几十年来的变化。 研究1通过横断对比研究,对比了2008年和2020年两个不同时期大学生的性别角色,以考察性别角色的变迁。研究结果发现,在男子气和女子气的测量中,男大学生的得分都显著高于女大学生;并且不论性别和年份,大学生在女子气上得分都会显著高于男子气;随着时间的变化,男女的女子气都在显著下降,只有男性的男子气有所增长。在性别角色类型的分布中,不论性别,都呈现双性化和未分化上升,男性化和女性化下降。 研究2采用横断历史元分析对1993年到2019年期间,中国大学生的性别角色各类型分布的变化进行了分析,结果发现随着年代的变化,女大学生的双性化显著上升,女性化显著下降,男性化虽有所上升但不显著。 研究3通过回溯研究,让在改革开放初期已经成年了的个体回溯在1980年、2000年、2020年前后自己的性别角色变化。结果发现,经历过改革开放的这辈人的记忆中,男性的男子气先增长后下降,女性的男子气变化不大;女性的女子气随代际递加,男性的女子气先增长,后下降。 研究4考察了中国人知觉到的代际(祖辈、父辈、和孙辈)间的性别角色及其差异,结果发现女性的男子气增加(研究4A,研究4B),男性的男子气减少(研究4A)。 研究5我们从个体层面进行了家庭代际性别角色变化的调查,通过定性研究与定量研究结合的方法,我们发现在孙辈的感知中家庭中男性的女子气变化显著,孙辈>父母辈>祖辈,家庭中男性的女子气随代际上升,在性别角色类型的变化中表现在双性化性别角色类型随代际增加。 五项研究基于不同视角对中国人的性别角色变迁进行了探讨,因为研究对象、研究方法以及研究视角不同,结果略有差异,我们整理了较为一致的结论:1993年到2019年间,中国人的性别角色类型分布中,典型化(男性化、女性化)降低,非典型化(双性化、未分化)增加(研究1、研究2、研究5);女大学生女子气下降(研究1、4),男子气上升(研究4、5)。这些发现表明,在中国社会现代化的过程中,中国人的性别角色发生了一定程度的变化,在追求自我发展的路上前进。
Other AbstractIn the process of China's rapid modernization, extensive and profound changes have taken place and continue to take place in Chinese culture and the psychology and behavior of the Chinese people. This paper explores the changes in gender roles of Chinese people over the past decades through four studies. In Study 1, the gender roles of college students in 2008 and 2020 were compared in two different periods through cross-sectional comparative study to investigate the changes of gender roles. The results show that male college students score significantly higher than female college students in the measurement of masculinity and femininity. Moreover, regardless of gender and year, college students score significantly higher on femininity than on masculinity. Over time, masculinity declined significantly for both men and women, while masculinity increased for men only. In the distribution of gender role types, regardless of gender, there is an increase in androgyny and undifferentiation, while a decrease in masculinity and femininity. In Study 2, cross-sectional historical meta-analysis was used to analyze the changes in the distribution of various types of gender roles of Chinese college students from 1993 to 2019. The results showed that with the change of time, the androgyny of female college students increased significantly, the femininity decreased significantly, and the masculinity increased but was not significant. In Study 3, individuals who had grown up in the early stage of reform and opening up were allowed to trace their gender role changes around 1980, 2000 and 2020 through retrospective study. The results show that men's masculinity first increased and then decreased, while women's masculinity did not change much in the memories of those who experienced the reform and opening-up. The femininity of women increases with the increase of generation, and the femininity of men increases first and then decreases. Study 4 examined Chinese perceived gender roles and their differences across generations (grandparents, parents, and grandchildren), and found that women became more masculine (Study 4A, Study 4B) and men became less masculine (Study 4A). Research 5, we discuss the family from the individual level generational change in gender roles, combining qualitative research and quantitative research methods, we found that the men in the family of the woman in the perception of the grandchildren gas changes significantly, grandchildren > parents > grandparents, gas generation increase male in the family woman, said in the change of gender role types now double sex, gender role types with the increase of generation. Five study based on different perspective on Chinese gender role changes are discussed in this paper, as the research object, research methods and research Angle of view is different, the results vary slightly, we compiled a more consistent conclusions: from 1993 to 2019, the gender role types distribution of Chinese, the typical (masculine and feminine) is reduced, the typical (bisexual, undifferentiated) increase (research 1, 2, 5);Female college students' femininity decreased (study 1, 4), while their masculinity increased (study 4, 5).These findings suggest that in the process of the modernization of Chinese society, the gender roles of Chinese people have changed to a certain extent, and they are moving forward in the pursuit of self-development.
Keyword性别角色 男子气 女子气 双性化 社会变迁
Subtype硕士
Language中文
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline基础心理学(人格与社会心理学)
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39600
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
朱慧珺. 1970-2020年中国人性别角色的变迁[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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