|Other Abstract||Psychological Flexibility (PF) is the core conception and key target of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) with multi-components. Studies have shown that PF has a positive effect on mental health. As the positive indicators of mental health, whether college adjustment (CA) and subjective well-being (SWB) are affected by PF, remains to be further studied. Vocational college students and undergraduates, as two main groups in China's higher education, have particularity in both objective condition and psychological characteries. Therefore, this dissertation focused on the component research and compound conception of PF, as well as the two groups of vocational students and undergraduates, to explore the effect of PF on CA and SWB and to preliminarily investigate the feasibility and effect of online intervention on PF. This study focused on Acceptance (the opposite is experiential avoidance, EA), cognitive defusion (the opposite is cognitive fusion, CF), and values of psychological flexibility.
Study 1 tested the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Valuing Questionnaire (VQ) among college students. Like the original questionnaire, the Chinese version of VQ included two dimensions, named progress and obstruction. The former reflects the enactment of values, including clear awareness of what is personally important and perseverance in behavior. The latter reflects the disruption of valued living due to avoidance of unwanted experience and inattention to values. Results showed that the Chinese version of VQ has good reliability and validity in general population, and could be applied in studies of values of PF.
Study 2 compared the differences of PF, CA and SWB between vocational students and undergraduates. After controlling the demographic variables such as gender, place of origin and only child status, results showed that compared with undergraduates, the cognitive fusion of vocational students was lower and the emotional experience was more positive. However, there was no significant differences between the two groups.
Study 3 examined the effects of PF on CA and SWB from the perspective of component research and compound concept, and analyzed the moderation effect of sample type in component research. Results of component research showed that value progress, experiential avoidance all had significant predictive effect on CA and SWB; cognitive fusion only had significant predictive effect on IWB, but not on CA; and the sample type had a moderation effect on the relationships between value progress and CA, experiential avoidance and CA, experiential and IWB, cognitive fusion and CA, cognitive fusion and IWB. Specifically, value progress played a greater role in vocational students, experiential avoidance played a greater role in undergraduates and cognitive fusion only played a role in vocational students. As a compound concept, latent profile analysis (LPA) showed that the three-profile model was the best based on the indicators of PF, named high PF, moderate PF and low PF. And CA and SWB were significantly different across the three profiles, with high PF groups adjusting the best to college life and having the highest well-being, whereas low PF groups adjusted the worst to college life and had the lowest well-being. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of demographic variables in the three profiles, and found that the distribution of male, urban, only-child and vocational students are more characterized by high PF.
Study 4 investigated the mediation effect of CA on the relationships between PF and IWB from the perspective of component research and compound concept and analyzed the moderation effect of sample type in the mediation effect of component research by structural equation model (SEM). Results of component research showed that value progress affected SWB mainly through CA, experiential avoidance affected SWB partly through CA. The moderated mediation analysis showed that the sample type only moderated the relationship between value progress, experiential avoidance and CA, the specific effect of which was consistent with results of study 3. As a compound concept, the mediation analysis was conducted based on the three profiles of LPA in study 3, and showed that the relative mediation effects of moderate and high PF were both significant with the reference level of low PF, and there was no significant difference between the relative mediation effects of moderate and high PF.
Study 5 used a mobile app based on the ACT matrix to conduct online intervention, and initially examined its feasibility and intervention effect. The results showed that there was a high degree of satisfaction with the app and acceptable adherence. And the negative emotion decreased significantly in the intervention group relative to the waitlist, which may be related to the decrease of experiential avoidance and cognitive fusion. But there were no differences between conditions on PF and CA.
The above studied showed that compared with undergraduates, vocational college students had lower cognitive fusion and felt more positive emotions. PF had a significant predictive effect on CA and IWB, and affected IWB through CA. The relationships between value progress, experiential avoidance and CA were moderated by sample type. Online intervention for PF was feasible to a certain extent and could decrease the negative emotions.|