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自我肯定影响威胁信息加工多视角的探索作者
Alternative TitleSelf affirmation Influences the Cognitive Processing of Threat Explorations from Multiple Perspectives
陈 鋆
Contributor蔡华俭
2021-06
Abstract在日常生活中,威胁总是无处不在并对人们造成诸多消极影响,如情绪低落、抑郁、行为绩效下降、认知偏差等。因此,积极有效的威胁应对方法是近几十年来社会心理学者们研究的热点之一。其中,大量研究已经证实自我肯定具有一系列积极有效的威胁应对功能,包括缓解威胁导致的消极情绪与应激反应,减少个体对威胁的防御性反应和行为,提高个体对威胁的接受程度等。但是,鲜有研究探讨自我肯定会如何影响威胁信息加工的过程。对该问题进行研究不仅可以填补相关方面研究的空白,拓展我们对自我肯定功能的认知,更可以在一定程度上揭示自我肯定积极效果的内在机制。本文开展了三个系列研究,分别采用眼动、行为、脑电的方法和技术从不同视角探讨自我肯定对威胁信息认知加工过程的影响。研究一采用眼动技术探究自我肯定如何影响威胁加工过程中的注意偏向。在该研究中,自我肯定组和控制组被试自由观察由死亡威胁图片和中性图片组成的一系列图片矩阵,被试在任务全程中的眼动信息均被记录。研究结果表明,不论是在威胁加工的早期还是在威胁加工的全过程中(6秒),自我肯定都降低了人们对死亡威胁信息的注意警惕和固着。 研究二包含两个行为实验,研究二A和研究二B分别考察在实验结束后和24小时后,自我肯定对威胁信息记忆偏向的影响。在研究二中,我们采用名义上的点探测任务为被试呈现死亡威胁图片和中性图片,并让被试在任务结束后(研究二A)和24小时后(研究二B)完成意外的图片再认任务。结果发现自我肯定不影响个体在刺激呈现后对威胁信息的再认记忆;但是,自我肯定降低个体在刺激呈现24小时后对威胁信息的再认记忆,即自我肯定帮助人们更好地遗忘威胁相关信息。 研究三在研究一和研究二的基础上采用事件相关电位(ERP)技术对自我肯定影响威胁认知加工的神经机制进行探究。研究三同样采用名义上的点探测任务呈现死亡威胁图片和中性图片。结果发现自我肯定可以在死亡威胁加工过程中增强人们的认知控制能力(N2),降低人们对威胁信息的注意警惕和固着(LPP),说明自我肯定为个体提供了更多的心理资源帮助个体更好应对威胁。 综上所述,本研究结果发现自我肯定可以为个体提供强大的心理认知资源(体现在N2和LPP上),进而缓解人们对威胁信息的注意和记忆偏向。本文从认知加工的视角,采用不同技术对自我肯定影响威胁的认知加工过程进行探讨,促进人们深入理解自我肯定的威胁应对功能,为我们在日常生活中利用自我肯定来应对威胁提供理论和实践指导。
Other AbstractThreats are inevitable in our daily life. Threats could lead to diverse defensive responses such as defensive responding, aggressiveness and risk behaviors. Therefore, how to help people buffer threats rises as an urgent issue. Numerous studies have confirmed that self-affirmation can serve as an effective buffer of threat, including attenuating negative emotions and stress responses, reducing individuals’ defensive behaviors and heightening their openness to threat-related information. But how, exactly, does self-affirmation work? The current research aims to explain how self-affirmation could affect human’s processing of threat, thus deepening our understanding of self-affirmation’s buffering function. Three studies were conducted. By using eye tracking technique, Study 1 investigated how self affirmation affects attentional processing of threat. In study 1, participants completed a free viewing task that consisted of death related (mortality threat) and non death related (control) images, while their eye movements were being recorded. The results indicated that self affirmation could alleviate human’s vigilance toward threat from early phase to the whole time course (0 6000ms). Study 2 investigated how self affirmation would affect the memory bias of threat processing with two behavioral experiments. In study 2, participants were required to complete a nominal visual dot probe task in which death related and control images were presented. Then, a surprised recollection memory task was conducted immediately after the dot probe task (Study 2A) or 24 hours later (Study 2B). The results suggested that self affirmation exerted no significant effect on human’s recollection memory immediately after the stimuli presentation but could help people better forget threat related information (24 hours later). Study 3 used Event Related Potential (ERP) method to explore the neural mechanism underlying self affirming’s impacts on threat processing. As study 2, death related and control images were presented in a nominal visual dot probe task. The results indicated that self affirmation provided plenty of psychological and cognitive resources to participants, thus enabling them to enhance cognitive control (N2) and attenuate their attentional bias towards mortality threats (LPP). Taken together, the findings from three studies demonstrate the impacts of self affirmation on human being’s processing of threat, shedding light on the cognitive mechanism underlying the buffering function of self affirmation.
Keyword自我肯定 威胁应对 注意偏向 记忆偏向 认知控制
Subtype博士
Language中文
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline基础心理学(人格与社会心理学)
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39605
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
陈 鋆. 自我肯定影响威胁信息加工多视角的探索作者[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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