PSYCH OpenIR  > 认知与发展心理学研究室
社会性注意的特异性认知神经机制
Alternative TitleThe Specific Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms of Social Attention
纪皓月
Contributor蒋毅 ; 王莉
2021-06
Abstract瞬息万变的外界环境中,人类可以通过社会性注意捕捉他人当下的注意焦点,获取环境中的关键性信息。这一能力对人类有效的社会互动和适应能力的发展发挥着至关重要的作用。然而,社会性注意这一不可或缺的能力是否具有特异性,以及是否与非社会性注意具有本质区别尚未可知。本文通过四个研究探察社会性注意特异的认知神经机制。 研究一结合视觉适应的手段和中央线索范式的变式,考察社会线索所诱发的注意效应的特异性。我们发现,对生物运动行走方向的适应可以引起生物运动诱发的注意效应的适应后效。更重要的是这一适应后效可以在社会线索之间跨类别的发生,适应眼睛注视线索可以对生物运动行走方向的注意效应产生适应后效,反之亦然。然而社会性注意和非社会性注意之间存在双重分离,对生物运动和箭头其中任一线索的适应都不能影响另一线索诱发的注意效应。该研究表明不同社会线索诱发的注意效应共享相同的认知神经机制,并特异于非社会性注意。 研究二我们引入工作记忆这一高级认知过程,考察保存在工作记忆中的社会线索表征是否能够自动引导社会性注意。利用延迟匹配样本范式结合点探测任务,我们发现无意记忆的眼睛注视线索可以自动诱发注意定向。而非社会性的箭头线索无论其方向被无意还是有意地保存在工作记忆中,都不能诱发注意的自动定向。该研究为 工作记忆中的社会线索能够自动引导空间注意提供了直接的证据,并强调了社会性 注意相对于非社会性注意而言独特的认知机制。 研究三中,我们从无意识角度出发,探究工作记忆表征对社会线索无意识加工的调节作用。借助延迟匹配样本范式和突破连续闪烁抑制任务,我们发现工作记忆中保存的眼睛注视表征可以促使与之注视方向一致的面孔更快进入意识水平。更重要的是记忆同样具有社会属性的头部朝向能够调节无意识的眼睛注视线索的加工,然而非社会性的箭头记忆表征不具有这一调节作用。该研究表明,工作记忆保存的社会线索表征可以通过自上而下加工的方式,促进 与之相关的社会线索的无意识加工,并再一次强调了社会线索和非社会线索认知机制的分离。研究四采用与研究一相同的范式,借助事件相关电位(event-related potential, ERP)技术从神经水平考察社会性注意的视觉适应。结果表明,适应生物运动刺激和眼睛注视 刺激 能够引起 生物运动行走方向线索 所诱发 的早期注意定向负波early directing attention negativity, EDAN 的适应后效。而适应箭头线索没有引起类似的适应后效。该研究为社会性注意的特异性神经机制提供了最直接的神经证据。 综上所述,这些研究结果从自下而上以及自上而下两个层面强调了社会性注意 的 特殊性 为人脑中存在“社会性注意网络”提供了有力的支持性证据。
Other AbstractHuman beings are adept at capturing the focus of attention from others and obtain critical information in a fast-changing environment through social attention. This ability plays a crucial role in the everyday effective social interactions and underlies the development of adaptive functioning in humans. However, whether this indispensable ability is unique and qualitatively distinct from non-social attention remains equivocal. In the following four studies, we investigated the specific cognitive and neural mechanisms of social attention. In Study 1, using the visual adaptation technique in conjunction with a modified central cueing paradigm, we investigated the specificity of social attention induced by social cues. Results revealed that adaptation to the walking direction of biological motion (BM) affected the reflexive attentional effect triggered by subsequent BM cues. Critically, adapting to another distinctively different social cue (i.e., eye gaze) could also modulate BM-mediated attentional orienting and vice versa, reflecting remarkable cross-category adaptation aftereffects between different social cues. Moreover, the lack of cross-category adaptation aftereffect between social (i.e., BM) and non-social cues (i.e., arrows) highlighted a double dissociation between social and non-social attention. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that social attention induced by different types of cues might share common neural substrates and dissociate from non-social attention. In Study 2, we introduced working memory (WM) as a high-level cognitive process, and explored whether maintaining social cues in WM could automatically guide our focus of attention. Using the delayed-match-to-sample paradigm combined with the dot-probe task, we found that incidentally holding eye gaze cues in WM could automatically induce attentional orienting effect. However, such WM-induced social attention effect could not be generalized to non-social cues (i.e., arrows), regardless of whether arrows were incidentally or intentionally memorized. Taken together, Study 2 provided clear evidence that social cues stored in WM could automatically guide spatial attention, and highlighted the uniqueness of cognitive mechanisms underlying social attention as compared to non-social attention. In Study 3, we tapped into the perception of social cues in the absence of conscious awareness, and investigated the modulation of WM contents on the perception of eye gaze that was rendered invisible. Using the breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS) technique embedded in the delayed-match-to-sample paradigm, our results revealed that suppressed faces with averted eye gaze got prior access to awareness when the gaze direction matched that of the face held in WM. Importantly, such modulation effect was also found when another social cue (i.e., head orientation) was memorized as WM content, but not non-social cues (i.e., arrows). These findings provided direct evidence that WM contents in social domain could act as a top-down mechanism to enhance nonconscious processing of relevant social cues, and again clearly distinguished social attention from non-social attention. In Study 4, we followed the same paradigm as in the Study 1, and examined the adaptation aftereffects of social attention at the neural level by using event-related potential (ERP) technique. Results revealed similar aftereffects of early directing attention negativity (EDAN) induced by the BM cues after adapting to the walking direction of BM as well as eye gaze direction. However, we failed to find this aftereffect when arrows were employed as adaptors. These findings were the most direct neural evidence for the specific neural mechanism of social attention. Taken together, these findings provided evidence for the view that “social attention is special” from both the perspectives of bottom-up and top-down processes, and supported the existence of “social attention detector” in the human brain.
Keyword社会性注意 生物运动 眼睛注视 工作记忆
Subtype博士
Language中文
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline认知神经科学
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39610
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
纪皓月. 社会性注意的特异性认知神经机制[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
纪皓月-博士学位论文.pdf(3298KB)学位论文 限制开放CC BY-NC-SAApplication Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[纪皓月]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[纪皓月]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[纪皓月]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.