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中国社会群体和政府刻板印象变迁及其机制
Alternative TitleStereotype Change and its Mechanisms of Social Groups and the Government in China A dissertation
贾奇凡
Contributor周洁 ; 李永娟
2021-06
Abstract刻板印象,是指人们对某一群体成员的特征、属性或行为持有的信念,影响人们对外群体的态度和行为 。个体对于社会群体和政府的刻板印象是社会认知的重要组成部分,中国社会的高效有序运行离不开人们对于社会群体和政府的良性认知。当今中国处于急速变革的阶段,刻板印象作为历史文化的产物,必然也发生巨大的变化。本研究基于中国的文化背景,在社会群体刻板印象概念的基础上提出政府刻板印象的概念,通过两个研究共五个子研究,分别探索了社会群体刻板印象和政府刻板印象的内容、变迁及其机制。 研究一在社会群体情境下,分别采用横截面数据和回溯数据对社会群体刻板印象的内容、代际变迁及其机制进行检验。研究 1a 通过测量 35 岁及以上 被试针对中 国 22 个典型社会群体的刻板印象、情绪和行为倾向,验证了刻板印象内容模型的基本假设,并通过将 35 岁及以上 被试数据与前人研究中 35 岁以下 被试数据进行对比,发现了社会群体刻板印象逐渐消极的代际变迁。研究 1b 通过分析50 后( 1950 -1959 年间出生的个体)90后( 1 990- 1999 年间出生的个体)的被试对传统和新兴职业群体的刻板印象、信息(了解程度)、社会信任水平,发现评价者的社会信任和信息在刻板印象的代际差异中有显著的间接效应,说明了评价者认知和动机因素的作用。研究 1c 采用回溯范式,要求50后90后参与者回忆或推测1970- 2019 年的五个十年间人们针对代表性职业群体的刻板印象、信息、以及各时间段内的总体社会信任水平。结果表明,50和60 后认为刻板印象不存在时间变迁,80后和 90后认为刻板印象变得更加消极,年轻人逐渐消极的刻板印象是由于评价者动机,即社会信任导致的,从而再次检验了刻板印象的代际变迁中评价者因素的作用。 研究二在政府情境下,通过对两个时间点民众的政府刻板印象数据进行分析,揭示政府刻板印象的内容、时间变迁及其机制。数据来自2014 年全国大规模社会态度调查数据库和2018 年展开的全国大规模社会态度调查,分别包括相同的5个省 85个县的 3593 和 3416 名被试。研究 2a 采用自由联想法,通过编码分析和频次统计,获得2014 年和 2018 年的政府刻板印象内容,比较两年的结果发现,相比2014年,人们在 2018 年的政府刻板印象变得更加积极。研究 2b 以政府绩效、政府信息 、政府信任,分别作为被评价者因素、评价者认知因素和评价者动机因素, 通过对县级层面 8 5 个 数据的中介分析,结果表明, 政府绩效的提高预测地方政府信任的提高,进而影响政府刻板印象的改善,显示出被评价者因素通过对评价者动机因素的影响作用于刻板印象变迁的机制。 本研究考察了社会群体和政府刻板印象的内容及其变迁,从刻板印象角度对处于大变局中的社会变化进行描述。 同时,通过对变迁过程中评价者因素与被评价者因素作用的探讨,回答了刻板印象变迁中可能存在的机制,对于刻板印象变迁的研究具有理论贡献,也对刻板印象干预的研究具有实践指导意义 。
Other AbstractStereotypes are people’s beliefs about the characteristics, attributes, or behaviors of members of certain groups, which affect people’s attitudes and behaviors toward the outgroups. The individual’s stereotypes of social groups and government are important parts of social perception. Theefficient and orderly operation of Chinese society is inseparable from people’s positive perception of social groups and government. Modern China is in a period of rapid change. Steretypes, as the product of history and culture, must have changed a lot as well. Based on China’s cultural background, this research puts forward the concept of government stereotypes on the basis of the concept of social group stereotypes,and explores the content, change, and the mechanisms of change of social group stereotypes and government stereotypes, through five studies in two series. Study 1 is in the social context. Cross-sectional data and retrospective data were used to examine the content, trend, and mechanisms of generational change of social group stereotypes. In study 1a, we measured the stereotypes, emotions, and behavioral tendencies against 22 typical Chinese social groups with participants over 35 years old, and we confirmed the basic assumptions of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). Then we compared them with data from participants under 35 years old in a previous study, finding a negative trend of generational social group stereotypes change. Instudy 1b, we required participants who were born in 1950-1999 to report their stereotypes and information about some classic and novel occupational groups, as well as their general social trust. The results showed that evaluators’ social trust and information had significant indirect effects on the generational differences, which indicated the effect of evalutors’ cognition and motivation factors. In study 1c, we adopted retrospective method, and asked participants born in the 1950s to 1990s to recall or speculate about stereotypes and information about four typical occupational groups in the five decades from 1970 to 2019, as well as social trust in each decade. The results showed that people born in the 1950s and 1960s believed that there was no time change in stereotypes, while people born in the 1980s and 1990s believed that stereotypes became more negative. The results also showed that the decreasing trend on stereotype favorability of young people was caused by the evaluators’ motivation,i.e. social trust. This confirmed the effect of evaluators in the generational stereotype change again. Study 2 is in the government context. We examined the content, trend, and its mechanisms of time change of government stereotypes by analyzing people’s stereotype t owards the government in two time points. Data were from the database named 2014 large scale national survey on people’s social attitude and the large scale national survey on people’s social attitude conducted by us in 2018, including 3,593 and 3,416 pa rticipants from the same 85 counties in 5 provinces, respectively. In study 2a, by coding and analyzing the free response data, we obtained the content of government stereotypes in 2014 and 2018, and by comparing data from 2014 and 2018, we found that peop le’s government stereotypes became more positive in 2018 than in 2014. In study 2b, we set government performance , government information , and the trust towards the government as the indicators of targets factor ,the cognition factor of evaluators, and the motivation factor of the evaluators. Through the mediation analysis of 85 county level data, the results showed that the increase of government performance predicted the improvement of local government trust, and then affected the improvement of government stereotypes, which indicated the mechanism by which the targets’ factor acts on stereotype change through the influence of evaluators’ motivation factor. This research examines the content and change of the stereotypes of social groups and government, which records the great social changes in modern China with a view of stereotypes And it examines the effect of evaluators and targets on stereotype change, which answers the possible mechanisms of stereotype change and has both theoretical and practical implications on stereotype change research
Keyword刻板印象变迁 刻板印象内容模型 信任 信息
Subtype博士
Language中文
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline应用心理学
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39612
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
贾奇凡. 中国社会群体和政府刻板印象变迁及其机制[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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