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汉语学龄前儿童时间加工能力对汉字阅读能力的预测研究
Alternative TitleThe Prediction of Preschoolers’ Temporal Processing on Character Reading in Chinese Children
刘宇飞
Contributor毕鸿燕
2021-06
Abstract阅读是个体发展不可或缺的能力之一,尽管大多数儿童能够通过学习顺利地获得良好的阅读能力,但仍有一些儿童不能顺利获得足够的阅读能力。而对于那些阅读能力发展较慢、较差的儿童,如果我们在他们已经经历很长一段时间的阅读失败并且在学业上落后于同龄人之后才开始关注他们,这种做法会使我们错过最有效的干预时期,即幼儿园或小学一年级。实际上,当儿童刚刚升入小学时,他们的读写能力就已经表现出不同。 以往以成人和学龄儿童为研究对象的研究发现,听觉和视觉时间加工能力在阅读中发挥着重要的作用。所谓时间加工是指对感知到的或产生的时间结构(持续时间,顺序,节奏或规律)的编码、解码和评估。拼音文字中已有少量研究关注了学龄前儿童的听觉和视觉时间加工能力对阅读能力的预测作用。由于汉字结构及发音的特殊性,在学龄儿童中,研究者发现听觉和视觉时间加工能力在汉语阅读中的作用不同于拼音文字。因此,本研究首次从行为和神经活动两方面系统探究了汉语学龄前儿童听觉和视觉时间加工能力对汉语阅读及相关能力的预测作用。行为预测分为两个研究,分别从听觉时间加工和视觉时间加工两方面追踪考察了汉语学龄前儿童时间加工能力对一年后阅读及相关能力的预测作用;神经电生理预测也分为两个研究,追踪考察了汉语学龄前儿童完成听觉和视觉时间加工任务时的神经活动对其小学二年级时阅读及相关能力的预测作用。主要结果如下: (1)学龄前听觉和视觉时间加工能力预测了儿童一年后(一年中)识字量,语音意识,语素意识等阅读及其相关能力的发展; (2)在听觉脑电研究中,儿童对声音持续时间偏差刺激的MMN波幅越大,潜伏期越短,汉字阅读流畅性越好;LDN波幅越大,儿童二年级的识字量、语素意识和正字法意识测试成绩越好,潜伏期越短,二年级时的语素意识越好。短时间内连续呈现的两个新异刺激相继诱发了学龄前儿童两个连续的MMN反应,其中第一个MMN反应的波幅越大,儿童二年级时的汉字和拼音阅读流畅性越好;第二个MMN反应的波幅越大,其语音意识发展越好,潜伏期越短,汉字阅读流畅性越好。 (3)视觉脑电任务探查了汉语学龄前儿童观察运动刺激时的神经电生理活动对阅读及相关能力的预测作用。右侧颞顶区对运动刺激的N2波幅越大,儿童二年级时的语音意识和语素意识越好。左侧颞顶区对运动刺激的N2波幅越小,其语音意识,正字法意识越好;潜伏期越短,其语音记忆,拼音阅读流畅性,正字法意识越好。与以往对成人和学龄儿童的研究结果一致,在学龄前儿童中,一致性运动比随机运动在右半球诱发了更大的N2波幅。 本研究首次采用行为学和神经电生理学技术系统探究了汉语学龄前儿童听觉和视觉时间加工能力对阅读能力的预测作用。结合已有研究,可以帮助我们进一步理解时间加工能力对不同阶段阅读及相关能力发展的影响,有助于我们在汉语儿童发展的早期阶段,通过时间加工能力对其学龄期的阅读水平做出预测,从而尽早筛查出阅读困难高风险儿童,尽早进行有针对性的干预训练。
Other AbstractReading is one of the indispensable abilities for individual development. Although most children can successfully acquire good reading ability through learning, there are still some children who cannot successfully acquire sufficient reading ability. For children with slower and poorer reading development, if we start paying attention to them after they have experienced reading failure for a long time and lagged behind their peers academically, this will make us miss the most effective intervention period, which is kindergarten or first grade. In fact, when children just enter elementary school, their literacy skills have already shown differences. Previous studies on adults and school-age children have found that auditory and visual temporal processing plays an important role in reading. Temporal processing is the neurocognitive mechanisms that underlie the encoding, decoding and evaluation of temporal structure in perception and production. There have been a small number of studies in alphabet writing that have focused on the predictive effect of auditory and visual temporal processing abilities of preschool children on reading. Due to the particularity of the structure and pronunciation rules of Chinese characters, researchers found that the role of auditory and visual temporal processing in Chinese reading was different from that of alphabet reading among primary school students. At the same time, there is little attention paid to children with high risk of reading difficulties in domestic research. Therefore, this study is the first to systematically explore the relationship between Chinese preschool children's auditory and visual temporal processing abilities and Chinese reading and related abilities from the perspective of behavior and neural activities. Behavioral prediction consisted of two studies, which investigated the predictive effect of temporal processing in Chinese preschoolers and reading and related abilities after one year from the perspective of auditory and visual respectively. Neuroelectrophysiological prediction was also involved in two studies, which tracked the effects of auditory and visual temporal processing of Chinese preschoolers on reading and related abilities in the second grade of primary school. The main results were as follows: (1) Auditory and visual temporal processing ability in preschoolers predicted the development of vocabulary, phonological awareness, morphological awareness and other reading and related abilities. (2) In the auditory EEG research, the results showed that the larger the MMN amplitude and the shorter the latency period in response to the sound duration deviation were, the better the children’s score on the reading fluency of Chinese characters was. The larger the LDN amplitude was, the better the vocabulary, morphological awareness and orthographic awareness were in the second grade. And the shorter the latency period was, the better the morphological awareness was. In the oddball paradigm of tone-patten, the deviation stimulus was different from the standard stimulus in the time interval of pure tone. Two novel stimuli presented in a short period of time successively induce two consecutive MMN responses in preschool children, among which the larger the amplitude of the first MMN response was, the better the children’s reading fluency of Chinese characters and Pinyin were in second grade. The larger the second MMN response was, the better the phonological awareness was. And the shorter the latency period of the second MMN was, the better the children’s reading fluency of Chinese characters was. (3) Visual EEG task was the first to explore the predictive effect of neuroelectrophysiological activity on reading and related abilities in preschoolers when observing motion stimuli. The greater the N2 amplitude of the right temporoparietal region in response to motor stimuli was, the better the phonological and morphemic awareness of children in the second grade were. The smaller the N2 amplitude of the left temporoparietal region in response to motor stimuli was, the better the phonological and orthographic awareness were. And the shorter the latency period was, the better the phonetic memory, the reading fluency of Pinyin, and orthographic awareness were. Consistent with previous studies in adults and school-age children, coherent motion induced a larger N2 amplitude in the right hemisphere than random motion. This study was the first to use behavioral and neuroelectrophysiological techniques to systematically explore the predictive effect of auditory and visual temporal processing ability of Chinese preschoolers on reading. Combined with existing studies, it could help us to further understand the influence of temporal processing ability on the development of reading and related abilities at different stages. Moreover, it was helpful for us to predict the reading development of Chinese children at school age through temporal processing ability at the early stage of their development, so as to screen out the children at high risk of disabled reading early and carry out targeted intervention training as soon as possible.
Keyword汉语学龄前儿童 听觉时间加工 视觉时间加工 预测 汉字阅读
Subtype博士
Language中文
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39616
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘宇飞. 汉语学龄前儿童时间加工能力对汉字阅读能力的预测研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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