|Other Abstract||Reading is one of the indispensable abilities for individual development. Although most children can successfully acquire good reading ability through learning, there are still some children who cannot successfully acquire sufficient reading ability. For children with slower and poorer reading development, if we start paying attention to them after they have experienced reading failure for a long time and lagged behind their peers academically, this will make us miss the most effective intervention period, which is kindergarten or first grade. In fact, when children just enter elementary school, their literacy skills have already shown differences.
Previous studies on adults and school-age children have found that auditory and visual temporal processing plays an important role in reading. Temporal processing is the neurocognitive mechanisms that underlie the encoding, decoding and evaluation of temporal structure in perception and production. There have been a small number of studies in alphabet writing that have focused on the predictive effect of auditory and visual temporal processing abilities of preschool children on reading. Due to the particularity of the structure and pronunciation rules of Chinese characters, researchers found that the role of auditory and visual temporal processing in Chinese reading was different from that of alphabet reading among primary school students. At the same time, there is little attention paid to children with high risk of reading difficulties in domestic research. Therefore, this study is the first to systematically explore the relationship between Chinese preschool children's auditory and visual temporal processing abilities and Chinese reading and related abilities from the perspective of behavior and neural activities. Behavioral prediction consisted of two studies, which investigated the predictive effect of temporal processing in Chinese preschoolers and reading and related abilities after one year from the perspective of auditory and visual respectively. Neuroelectrophysiological prediction was also involved in two studies, which tracked the effects of auditory and visual temporal processing of Chinese preschoolers on reading and related abilities in the second grade of primary school. The main results were as follows:
(1) Auditory and visual temporal processing ability in preschoolers predicted the development of vocabulary, phonological awareness, morphological awareness and other reading and related abilities.
(2) In the auditory EEG research, the results showed that the larger the MMN amplitude and the shorter the latency period in response to the sound duration deviation were, the better the children’s score on the reading fluency of Chinese characters was. The larger the LDN amplitude was, the better the vocabulary, morphological awareness and orthographic awareness were in the second grade. And the shorter the latency period was, the better the morphological awareness was. In the oddball paradigm of tone-patten, the deviation stimulus was different from the standard stimulus in the time interval of pure tone. Two novel stimuli presented in a short period of time successively induce two consecutive MMN responses in preschool children, among which the larger the amplitude of the first MMN response was, the better the children’s reading fluency of Chinese characters and Pinyin were in second grade. The larger the second MMN response was, the better the phonological awareness was. And the shorter the latency period of the second MMN was, the better the children’s reading fluency of Chinese characters was.
(3) Visual EEG task was the first to explore the predictive effect of neuroelectrophysiological activity on reading and related abilities in preschoolers when observing motion stimuli. The greater the N2 amplitude of the right temporoparietal region in response to motor stimuli was, the better the phonological and morphemic awareness of children in the second grade were. The smaller the N2 amplitude of the left temporoparietal region in response to motor stimuli was, the better the phonological and orthographic awareness were. And the shorter the latency period was, the better the phonetic memory, the reading fluency of Pinyin, and orthographic awareness were. Consistent with previous studies in adults and school-age children, coherent motion induced a larger N2 amplitude in the right hemisphere than random motion.
This study was the first to use behavioral and neuroelectrophysiological techniques to systematically explore the predictive effect of auditory and visual temporal processing ability of Chinese preschoolers on reading. Combined with existing studies, it could help us to further understand the influence of temporal processing ability on the development of reading and related abilities at different stages. Moreover, it was helpful for us to predict the reading development of Chinese children at school age through temporal processing ability at the early stage of their development, so as to screen out the children at high risk of disabled reading early and carry out targeted intervention training as soon as possible.|