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老年人社会情感性触觉与气质性乐观的关系研究
Alternative TitleThe relationship of Social Affective Touch and Dispositional Optimism in Elderly Adults
王晶晶
Contributor韩布新
2021-06
Abstract老年期在人生中相对特殊。伴随生理机能的下降及各类人生丧失(如丧偶丧亲等),老年人能否保持自理独立和积极情绪对其躯体和心理健康都至关重要。触觉对于老年期保持独立自理的生活也至关重要,而社会情感性触觉在情绪调节中扮演重要角色。同时,气质性乐观是应对孤独、压力,抵抗抑郁、提高生活适应性的有力保障。由此,考察触觉加工与气质性乐观及其关系在老年期尤为必要。 相比其他感知觉,触觉作为人类第五种感觉较少被研究关注。一方面,健康群体社会情感性触觉在促进人际关系、身体和心理幸福感方面的显著作用已得到初步证实;另一方面,在临床和亚临床群体中,对社会情感性触觉的趋避态度与各类社会性焦虑、创伤后应激障碍和自闭症谱系障碍和抑郁等精神障碍显著关联。老年群体相关研究少,需要更多数据。 乐观心理特征影响人如何看待自己及环境、处理传入信息并根据信息采取行动。人们对未来的预期是好是坏,这种简单差异与行为过程(如感知、态度等)息息相关。乐观充当认知过滤器,可改变人对世界的看法,并影响其对新情况的反应和适应方式。乐观水平的个体差异也与罹患临床心理疾病的风险有关。 社会情感性触觉受自上而下因素的影响,那么气质性乐观作为一种自上而下的人格倾向与老年人对社会情感性触觉的态度及其触觉感知评估关系如何?相应大脑皮层水平表现如何?与触摸相比,触觉-拥抱这种形式的社会情感性在感知评估和神经活动表现有何不同?此外,我们还希望回答社会情感性触觉相关的一些热点问题:如中国老年人手掌触摸加工以及拥抱触觉有无情感性?前臂和手掌处触摸加工有何异同?社会属性、生命属性是否影响真实的社会情感性触觉加工?本研究将通过一般倾向测量、行为实验和神经活动数据分析回答相关问题。 论文包括三个研究。研究一采用行为测量学方法,汉化社会情感性触觉量表,检验其信效度,并用于考察老年人气质性乐观与其社会情感性触觉态度的关系。研究二采用行为实验方法,考察老年人气质性乐观水平与社会情感性触摸感知评估的关系以及主动被动触摸方式、触摸位置、社会属性和生命属性在其中的作用。研究三采用行为实验和近红外光学成像技术,考察老年人气质性水平对社会情感性触觉(触摸和拥抱)感知评估的影响及其大脑皮层表现,比较触摸和拥抱的神 经活动差异以及社会属性和生命属性在其中的作用。 研究一表明:其一,汉化社会情感性问卷达到测量学标准,可有效测量中国成年人群体社会情感性触觉态度。其二,老年人的气质性乐观水平与社会情感性触觉态度显著相关,高低气质乐观水平在社会情感性触觉问卷的区分度良好。 研究二表明:高低乐观水平对前臂处社会情感性触摸的舒适度有一定影响,高乐观组在被动触摸条件下,社会属性的积极效应(社会属性积极情感大于非社会属性)消失;老年人的前臂(有非髓鞘C 型触觉纤维传入)和手掌(无非髓鞘C 型触觉纤维传入)的触摸感知都可以产生积极情感体验;社会属性的积极主效应在前臂和手掌处都存在;生命因素影响真实触觉的感知体验。 研究三表明:主动触摸和主动拥抱可使老年人产生积极情感,属于社会情感性触觉加工;老年人气质性乐观影响触觉通道的感知评估和神经活动;生命属性和社会属性影响拥抱与触摸的知觉感受和神经激活差异;双侧前额叶眼动区(Brodmann 8)也是参与社会情感性触觉加工的重要脑区;相比静息基线状态,触摸和拥抱任务状态在前额叶皮层激活脑区大部分重叠、小部分不同;在背外侧前额叶和额极区,触摸神经激活的脑区无左右半球偏好,不支持偏侧化理论;而拥抱的皮层激活既支持触觉偏侧化理论,也支持情绪的右半球假设理论。 总之,三项研究说明老年人气质性乐观与社会情感性触觉的态度报告、感知评估及其神经激活都关联。态度层面,老年人乐观水平越高,其对社会情感性触觉的接纳程度就更高。感知层面的触摸整体,老年人的气质性乐观与主被动触摸方式以及社会属性共同影响有CT 传入前臂处的社会情感性触摸;主动触摸和主动拥抱,气质性乐观水平越高,其对前臂处的触觉感知温度也就越高。此外,就神经激活层面,老年人的气质性乐观与生命及社会属性共同影响额极区的神经加工,高乐观组人群对人际接触神经激活更高。 此外,老年人的前臂(有CT传入)和手掌(无CT传入)在最优3cm/s下的触摸以及拥抱感知都产生积极情感体验;生命属性和社会属性对拥抱、触摸的知觉感受和神经激活也有重要作用;除了背外侧前额叶皮层、额极区之外,前额叶眼动区(Brodmann 8)也是前额叶参与社会情感性触觉加工的重要脑区。
Other AbstractIn old age, a special time in our life, people face a range of progressive decline of physiological functions and possible bereavement in life. Whether the elderly can maintain self-care, independence and positive emotions at this stage is crucial to their physical and mental health. The sense of touch plays a vital role in keeping with activities of daily living and emotional regulation. Meanwhile, dispositional optimism was beneficial to cope with loneliness and stress, depression resistance, improve daily life adaptability. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate dispositional optimism, touch process and their relationship. Compared with other sensory perception, touch, as the fifth sense of human, has received relatively less attention. On the one hand, the significant role of social affective touch in promoting interpersonal relationship, physical and psychological well-being of healthy people has been preliminarily confirmed; on the other hand, in clinical and subclinical groups, the avoidance attitude towards social affective touch is significantly associated with various mental disorders such as social anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, autism spectrum disorder and depression. There are few studies on the elderly group and more data are needed. Optimism affects how individuals view themselves and environment, process afferent information, and guide the actions. People's expectations of the future are good or bad, which is closely related to the core process of behavior. Optimism acts as a powerful cognitive filter, which can change the individual's view of the world and influence the way they react and adapt to new situations. The individual difference of optimism is also related to clinical psychological disorders and psychopathological risk. Social affective touch is influenced by top-down factors, what is the relationship among dispositional optimism, as a top-down personality trait, and the elderly's attitude towards social affective touch and its perception evaluation? What is its performance at the level of cerebral cortex? Compared with touch on forearm and palm, how does another form of social affective touch---embrace perform differently in sensory evaluation and neural activity? In addition, we hope to answer some important issues related to social affective touch: is there emotionality in the palm touch and embrace of Chinese elderly people? Are there similarities and differences between forearm and palm touch processing? Do sociality and animacy affect real social affective touch? In this study, we will use general propensity measurement, behavioral experiments and neural activity data to answer these questions. The present study includes three studies. In the first study, the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of social touch scale were tested, and the relationship between the elderly's dispositional optimism and their attitude to social affective touch was investigated. The second study used behavioral experiment method to investigate the relationship between dispositional optimism and sensory evaluation of social affective touch and the role of active and passive touch, touch position, sociality and animacy. In the third Study, behavioral experiments and functional near-infrared spectroscopy techniques were used to investigate the influence of dispositional optimism on social affective touch (touch on forearm and embrace) perception and its cerebral cortex performance, the differences of neural activities between touch and embrace and the roles of sociality and animacy were compared in the elderly. In study 1, the results showed that psychometric properties confirmed the adaptation of the STQ to the Chinese culture. It is a reliable and valid tool to assess attitudes towards social affective touch. The dispositional optimism is significantly related to the attitude of social affective touch, and the level of high and low dispositional optimism is well differentiated in the social affective touch questionnaire in old age. In study 2, the results investigated that the level of optimism has a certain impact on the comfort of social affective touch on forearm, which the positive effects of social attributes (positive emotions of social attributes are greater than non-social attributes) disappeared in the high level optimism group under the condition of passive touch; touch on the forearm (with unmyelinated C-type tactile fiber) and palm (without unmyelinated C-type tactile fiber) of the elderly produce positive emotional experience; the positive main effect of sociality exists in forearm and palm; animacy affect the perception of real touch. In study 3, the results demonstrated that active touch and embrace produce positive emotions in old age, which belongs to social affective touch processing; the elderly's dispositional optimism affects the tactile perception evaluation and neural activity; animacy and sociality influences perception experience and neural activity of touch and embrace. In addition, the bilateral frontal eye fields area (Brodmann 8) is also an important brain area involved in social affective touch. Compared with the resting baseline state, the activated brain areas of the prefrontal cortex in the touch and embrace task present overlap in most areas and different in a small part; In the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontal polar region, the activated brain areas of the touch task do not have left and right hemisphere preference, which does not support the lateralization theory; while the cortical activation of the embrace task may support the tactile lateralization theory, but also the right hemisphere hypothesis of emotion theory. In general, three studies showed that the dispositional optimism and social affective touch are related in attitude report, perception evaluation and neural activation in the elderly. On the attitude level, the higher the level of optimism, the higher the acceptance of social affective touch. In terms of the perception level of touch as a whole, the elderly's dispositional optimism, active and passive touch patterns and social attributes jointly affect the social affective touch at the forearm; In terms of active touch and embrace, the higher the level of dispositional optimism, the higher the tactile temperature of forearm. In addition, on the level of neural activation, the elderly's dispositional optimism and animacy and social attributes jointly affect the neural processing of frontal polar region, and the high optimism group has higher activation for interpersonal contact. In addition, the forearm (with CT afferent) and palm (without CT afferent) perception of touch and embrace of the elderly produce positive emotional experience under the optimal 3cm / s; animacy and sociality also play an important role in the perception and neural activation of embrace and touch; in addition to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontal polar area, the frontal eye fields area (Brodmann 8) produce positive emotional experience, which also was an important brain area of prefrontal cortex involved in social affective tactile processing.
Keyword社会情感性触觉 气质性乐观 老年人 近红外光学成像
Subtype博士
Language中文
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39621
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王晶晶. 老年人社会情感性触觉与气质性乐观的关系研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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