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语篇理解过程中情绪语境对情绪词加工的影响
Alternative TitleThe Effect of Emotional Context on the Processing of Emotional Words During Discourse Comprehension
张倩
Contributor杨玉芳
2021-06
Abstract人们在阅读理解中,能够推断出语篇主人公的情绪状态,并对语篇的情绪变化进行追踪。在语篇情绪理解的研究中,一般都采用违背范式来探测情绪语境的效应,其中既有效价违背也有语义违背,混杂了语义和效价的效应。我们想知道的是,在一个连贯的语篇中,情绪语境是如何影响后续情绪词的整合呢?以及语境的唤醒度又会发生什么作用呢?此外,目前情绪语篇的研究对记忆表征的关注较少,那么我们想知道,情绪语境对情绪词的语义记忆表征又有什么影响呢?本论文采用三个研究来回答这些问题。 本文采用研究一(实验1)探测情绪语境的有无对后续情绪词整合的影响。实验1中采用两句话组成的语篇作为实验材料,操纵第一句为负性或中性语境,第二句中的关键词为负性词。ERP结果发现,相比于中性语境,负性语境导致负性词上N400的降低和LPC 的增加,说明情绪语境的出现减弱了后续情绪词的语义分析,在晚期阶段增加了对情绪信息的持续评估。 研究二(实验2+实验 3)在实验 1的基础之上,探测语境的唤醒度对负性词和正性词整合的影响。研究二采用两句话组成的语篇作为实验材料 ,操纵第一句为高唤醒或低唤醒语境,并与后续的关键词构成效价一致或转折。实验 2发现,高唤醒语境下的效价转折效应出现在 P200和 P300时间窗 ,而低唤醒语境下的转折效应出现在 P300窗口,且地形分布更受限制。这说明语境唤醒度的增大促进了负性词的整合。实验 3采用相同的实验设计,探测情绪语境对正性词整合的影响,ERP结果发现高唤醒不一致比低唤醒一致诱发了更小的 N400和更大的LPC。这说明语境唤醒度的增加减弱了正性词的语义加工,而在晚期会进行更多的情绪评估。 研究一和研究二都发现,情绪语境会使情绪词 在晚期评估阶段得到更多精细加工,但可能会减弱词汇的语义加工。基于研究一和研究二的结果, 我们想知道,情绪语境是否会影响到词汇的语义记忆表征?我们在研究三(实验 4+实验 5 中探测了这个问题 。 在实验 4中,采用眼动技术和文本变化范式, 将四句话组成的语篇作为实验材料, 操纵前三句为情绪语境或者中性语境,探测情绪语境对负性词语义记忆表征的影响。 同理,实验 5采用相同的实验设计和范式,探测情绪语境对正性词语义记忆表征的影响。 实验 4的结果表明,相比于中性语境,高相关词在情绪语境下的正确率降低,总阅读时间和注视次数增加 ,实验 5的结果也发现了相似的结果模式。这说明,相比于中性语境,情绪语境抑制了情绪词的语义加工,导致其语义记忆表征衰减。 本论文通过三个研究五个实验考察了情绪语境对情绪词在线 加工和记忆表征的影响, 结果 发现, 一致性的情绪语境降低了情绪词的语义分析过程, 但增强了晚期的精细加工等过程 此外, 语境唤醒度的增加对正性词和负性 词的整合产生了不同的影响更进一步地,情绪语境降低了正性词和负性词的语义加工,减弱了语义记忆表征。因此,本研究从在线加工和记忆表征两方面,揭示了情绪语境对情绪词加工的影响, 并进一步阐述了在语篇理解中正性偏向和负性偏向不同的表现形式。
Other AbstractDuring discourse comprehension, people can infer the emotional state of the protagonist and keep track of the emotional changes. In the research of emotional discourse comprehension, most studies adopted prediction or violation paradigm to investigate the effect of emotional context on critical words, in which both valence contrast and semantic violation were included. What we wanted to know was, how were emotional words were processed in the coherent emotional context, and how was influenced by the congruent emotional context or the contextual arousal? In addition, current research on emotional discourses paid less attention to memory representation, so we wanted to know, how the semantic memory representation of emotional words was influenced by emotional context? In this paper, three studies were designed to examine these problems. In this paper, Study 1 (Experiment 1) was used to detect the influence of congruent emotional context on the integration of subsequent emotional words. In Exp 1, two-sentence discourses were used as experimental material. The first sentences expressed negative or neutral context, and the keywords in the second sentences were negative words. ERP results found that, compared with neutral context, the negative context elicited smaller N400 and larger LPC on negative words, indicating that the congruent emotional context reduced the semantic analysis of subsequent emotional words and led to more continuous evaluation of emotional information in late stage. On the basis of Exp 1, Study 2 (Exp 2+ Exp 3) explored the influence of contextual arousal on the integration of negative and positive words respectively. Two-sentence discourses were used as experimental materials. In Study 2, two-sentence discourses were used as experimental material. The first sentences expressed a high-arousal positive event, a low-arousal positive event, or a low-arousal negative event, which were consistent or inconsistent in valence with the critical words in the second sentences. We observed the valence shift effect in the P200 and P300 in the high arousal context, while the valence shift effect in the low arousal context only appeared in P300, and the distribution of P300 effect in the low arousal context was more limited, which indicated that the increase of contextual arousal promoted the integration of negative words. Exp 3 adopted the same experimental design to detect the influence of contextual arousal on the integration of positive words. ERP results showed that the High-arousal inconsistent condition induced smaller N400 and larger LPC than the Low-arousal consistent condition. These results indicated that high arousal context might weaken the semantic processing of positive words, while lead to more elaborated emotional evaluation in the later stage. Both study 1 and study 2 found that emotional context brought more elaboration during the late evaluation stage on subsequent emotional words, but might weaken semantic processing. Based on the results of Study 1 and 2, we wonder whether emotional context could also affect semantic memory representation of emotional word. We examined this problem in Study 3 (Exp 4+ Exp 5). In Exp 4, eye movement technology and text-change paradigm were adopted. The discourses composed of four sentences were used as material, and the first three sentences served as negative context or neutral context, and the fourth sentence contained one negative word as the critical word, which was identical among different conditions. Similarly, Exp 5 adopted the same experimental design and paradigm to explore the influence of emotional context on the semantic representation of positive words. The results of Exp 4 showed that the accuracy of highly relevant words was lower than that of low relevant words, and the total reading time and number of fixations of highly relevant words in the emotional context were larger than that in the neutral context. The similar result pattern was also found in Experiment 5. These results indicated that emotional context inhibited the semantic processing of emotional words and resulted in worse semantic memory representation compared with neutral context. In conclusion, this paper investigated the influence of emotional context on the online processing and memory representation of emotional words, by means of three studies and five experiments. The results showed that congruent emotional context reduced semantic analysis of emotional words, but enhanced the late elaborated emotional evaluation. In addition, the increase of contextual arousal exerted different effects on the integration of positive and negative words. Furthermore, emotional context reduced the semantic processing of positive and negative words and weakened the semantic memory representation. Therefore, this study revealed the effect of emotional context on the processing of emotional words from two aspects of online processing and memory representation, and further illustrated the different forms of positive bias and negative bias during discourse comprehension.
Keyword情绪词 整合 记忆 情绪语境
Subtype博士
Language中文
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline基础心理学
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39622
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张倩. 语篇理解过程中情绪语境对情绪词加工的影响[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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