PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
Alternative TitleAudiovisual temporal integration in clinical and subclinical samples of individuals with autism and schizophrenia
Abstract时间接近性是跨通道感觉信息整合的关键线索。为了将视觉和听觉信号整合为统一客体,一对视听信息呈现时间的差异必须小于某一阈值,这一阈值范围被定义为视听时间整合窗。视听时间整合窗的大小,反映个体觉察视听信息时间错位的敏感度,与更高级的认知和社会功能显著相关。儿童青少年期是视听时间整合能力发育并成熟的关键阶段,但前人研究多聚焦于婴幼儿和成人,视听时间整合窗在儿少期的特点尚无一致结论。 孤独症和精神分裂症,作为密切相关的神经发育性疾病,均表现出视听时间整合窗异常增大,即患者倾向于将呈现时间存在较大差异的视听信号进行错误捆绑,进而可能导致异常感知觉体验和社交沟通困难 。然而,前人研究往往关注单一临床群体,缺乏研究对比两类患者的异同表现,也缺乏研究深入考察亚临床孤独症特质和分裂型特质与视听时间整合能力的关联。本论文将通过四个研究系统考察儿少期孤独症、精神分裂症患者及其亚临床特质群体在视听时间整合能力方面 的行为表现和脑机制,并初步 探索非药物感知觉训练对提高孤独症患者视听整合能力的作用 。 研究一纳入健康青少年和成人进行对比,结果未发现视听时间整合窗的年龄差异,提示人们在步入人生第二个十年后,利用时间线索分离和整合视听信息的能力已发展成熟。研究二考察儿少期孤独症、早发精神分裂症患者及其亚临床特质群体的视听时间整合能力。 结果发现,当实验任务包含复杂言语信息时,两类患者均表现出觉察视听信息时间错位的敏感度下降。早发精神分裂症患者 存在更为广泛的时间加工能力缺损,他们更基础的单通道时序加工能力和简单非言语刺激的时间整合窗已出现显著异常。在非临床儿少群体中,未发现视听时间整合窗与孤独症特质、分裂型特质的显著相关 。 研究三招募健康大学生,通过静息态功能连接与视听时间整合窗的相关分析,初步探索视听时间整合能力个体差异背后的脑机制。研究发现,左侧颞上皮层与左侧楔前叶的功能连接越强,左侧小脑和右侧背外侧前额叶的功能连接越弱,言语视听时间整合窗越小;左侧颞上回前部与右侧颞下回的功能连接越强,非言语简单刺激的视听时间整合窗越大。由此可见,负责感觉整合与时间加工脑区的静息态功能连接,会影响视听时间整合窗的大小。同时,孤独症特质、分裂型特质与时间整合窗的大小及其相关的功能连接均无显著相关,进一步验证了研究二的结果。 研究四开发了一项适合儿童的干预训练,“反馈式视听同步训练”,应用于 4名高功能孤独症儿童。初步结果表明,为期 2 周的训练能有效缩短时间整合窗,且效果可维持至训练结束 1 月后。 视听时间加工能力的提高,还有望促进单通道时序加工敏感度的提升,改善噪音环境下的言语理解能力。 综上,本研究从感觉整合能力的视角出发,揭示了言语视听时间整合窗的异常增大是孤独症和精神分裂症 的共同 缺损,但视听整合能力的改变尚未表现于亚临床的孤独症特质和分裂型特质群体,上述结果 加深了我们对两类疾病关系的理解。研究还初步揭示了颞上回、小脑等联合皮层之间的功能连接对视听时间整合窗的影响。个案研究初步证实了非药物感知觉训练在孤独症儿童中的有效性,为后期的干预研究提供借鉴,具有理论意义和临床价值。
Other AbstractTemporal proximity is a basic and crucial cue to determine whether different sensory inputs belong to a single object or event. To integrate auditory and visual signals into a unified percept, the paired stimuli should be presented close in time and fall within a limited time window known as the Temporal Binding Window (TBW).The width of the TBW, a proxy of audiovisual temporal integration ability, has been found to be correlated with higher order cognitive and social functions. From a developmental perspective, adolescence is the key developmental stage in which narrowing of TBW progresses to reach maturity. However, as most studies of the TBW are conducted in infants and adults, it remains unclear how the TBW width changes during childhood and adolescence. Autism and schizophrenia are neurodevelopmental disorders that share overlapping features. Impaired audiovisual temporal integration, manifesting as abnormally widened TBW, is associated with both disorders and may cascade into aberrant perceptual experiences and social communicative difficulties. However, little is known about the similarities and differences of the underlying mechanisms of the widened TBW in these two clinical and subclinical groups. In this dissertation, we have con ducted four studies to systematically investigate audiovisual temporal integration in clinical and subclinical samples of individuals with autism and schizophrenia, and to explore the potential therapeutic effect of audiovisual trainings to improve social communicative function in 4 cases of autism spectrum disorder. Study 1 examined audiovisual temporal integration ability in a group of typically developing adolescents and young adults. Results showed no significant difference in the width of audiovisual TBW between the two age groups, suggesting the ability to utilize temporal cues to separate and integrate multisensory information matures at the early adolescence Stud y 2 compared audiovisual temporal integration between individuals with autism and schizophrenia, and examined the correlations between audiovisual temporal processing and autistic and schizotypal traits in typically developing children and adolescents. Our results demonstrated both shared and distinct patterns of atypical temporal processing in individuals with early onset schizophrenia (EOS) and individuals with high functioning autism. Specifically, when complex linguistic stimuli were involved in the eye tracking paradigm , both groups of patients exhibited reduced sensitivity of detecting audiovisual speech asynchrony. However, reduced temporal acuity was a generalized impairment in patients with EOS, affecting unisensory and multisensory modalities, as w ell as non speech and speech stimuli . In contrast , individuals with autism only exnibited widened audiovisual TBW for speech stimuli, and their unisensory temporal acuity and the TBW for non-speech stimuli preserved well. Moreover, in the non-clinical child population, our results did not find any significant correlation between the TBW width and the levels of autistic or schizotypal traits. Study 3 investigated the neural correlates of audiovisual TBW with resting state functional connectivity in young adults with different levels of autistic and schizotypal traits. T he resting state functional connectivity between some regions engaged in multisensory and timing tasks, including the superior temporal cortex, the cerebellum and the prefrontal cortex, may be the neural correlates underlying inter individual variability of the TBW width. Specifically, stronger resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the left superior temporal cortex and the left precuneus, and weaker rsFC between the left cerebellu m and the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex were correlated with a narrower TBW for speech stimuli. On the other hand , stronger rsFC between the left anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right inferior temporal gyrus was correlated with a wider audiovisual TBW for non speech stimuli. In addition, the TBW width and its related rsFC were not affected by levels of autistic or schizotypal traits, which was consistent with the findings of Study 2.
Keyword视听时间整合窗 孤独症 精神分裂症 孤独症特质 分裂型特质
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline认知神经科学
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
周晗昱. 孤独症、精神分裂症及特质群体的视听时间整合能力研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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