学习困难儿童智力结构及其与心理语言、视动能力关系的研究
其他题名IQ Structure, Psycholinguistic and Visual-motor Abilities Study on Children Learning Disability
童方
学位类型硕士
导师朱莉琪
2007-06-06
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词儿童学习困难 智力结构元分析 心理语言维度与智力及视动关系 家庭因素
摘要学习困难儿童智力结构及其与心理语言、视动能力关系的研究 目的 对学习困难儿童智力结构、智力与心理语言能力及视觉—运动能力关系、家庭影响因素进行综合分析、实验性测量及探讨性研究。 方法 (1)键入关键词、作者、重点刊物逐年逐篇相结合,对检索到的论文分类统计和分析,筛选出智测报告实验组与对照组各项评分齐全的论文,进行元分析,比较总智商,言语智商,操作智商的差异性。 (2)采取常模对照与自身对照相结合的方法,对59名学习困难儿童进行韦氏智力测验(包括10项分测量,评估总智商、言语智商和操作智商);心理语言能力(包括10项分测量,分别评估听知觉与视知觉的解码、联合、组码、记忆和组合过程,其中前3项为表象水平,后2项为自动化水平)及Berry单项神经心理测试,进行各因子描述性分析、交互作用探讨、分组比较及Pearson相关分析。 (3)对59名学习困难儿童同时实施家长回顾性调查,早期发育与常模对照,并进行分组比较、Kendall等级两两相关分析和斜交转轴因素分析。 结果 (1)1985~2005年维普医药及万方数据库有关儿童学习困难论文319篇,其中与智力结构相关论文36篇,数据齐全者14篇,智商总分困难组与对照组比较95%CI(95%可信区间)为2.418~0.172,其中用韦氏方法测量的10篇,困难组与对照组比较95%CI总智商为2.424~0.676,言语智商为2.314~1.196,操作智商为2.176~0.176;困难组VIQ与PIQ比较95%CI为1.1~ -0.07,对照组VIQ与PIQ比较95%CI为0.5 ~ -0.0046;而其他智测方法(瑞文3篇、中国比内1篇)学习困难组与对照组总智商比较95%CI为2.00 ~ -0.818。 (2)心理语言能力测试除听觉理解外,均与Berry视动显著相关;听觉理解、视觉组合与韦氏总智商、操作智商正相关;除词汇表达外,均与韦氏测验的空间因子显著相关;语法组合、视觉联合及手势表达与概念因子正相关。表象和自动化水平有赖于视听知觉的整合。学习困难儿童的词汇表达、视觉记忆相对较低,前者造成表达过程降低而使表象水平整体降低,后者导致记忆过程降低而成为自动化水平低的主因。 总智商90分界分组比较,除言语表达差距较低外,其他9分项90分以下者较以上者均明显偏低,分组后的差异更进一步证实智商对心理语言能力的限定性;尚不能肯定一般能力缺陷程度影响其知觉缺陷的类型。 学习困难儿童心理语言能力内部存在交互关系,听知觉与视知觉水平的理解、表达过程,记忆、组合过程相互制约,此高彼低;较低的视觉解码与听觉组码限制着理解和表达过程,较低的视觉记忆与语法组合研制着记忆和组合过程;而理解、组合、表达整合的表象水平与记忆、组合整合的自动化水平呈平行或递进的关系。 (3)家庭影响因素中与学习困难儿童智商有关因子主要为父亲文化程度、受教育年限、职业;听知觉水平低易出现注意不集中,视知觉水平低与早产有关,易出现写字慢等症状。 孕期先兆流产、分娩窒息可能影响儿童智力或以后的学习成绩。运动与知觉缺陷类型尚无法确定组间的剂量-反应关系。 结论 (1) 中国韦氏所测学习困难儿童总智商(FIQ)、言语智商(VIQ)和操作智商(PIQ)均低于对照组,尚不能肯定二组儿童VIQ与PIQ有显著性差异。 (2) 学习能力测试与智力测试不是测量同一种特质,前者与后者的空间因子密切相关,某些分测量与总智商有关,并与视觉-运动测量相关密切;智力对心理语言能力限定性明显;学习困难儿童心理语言能力内部存在交互关系。 (3) 影响学习困难儿童智力和心理语言能力的家庭因素为父亲文化程度、异常孕产期,呈现早期发育缓慢预兆。
其他摘要IQ Structure, Psycholinguistic and Visual-motor Abilities Study on Children Learning Disability TONG Fang Directed by professor Zhu Liqi (Developmental and educational psychology) ABSTRACT Objective To comprehensive analyze the IQ structures, and relationships among IQ, psychometric characteristics and visual-motor integration on children disability. At same time, to probe into the family factors that influenced IQ, psycholinguistic abilities and behavior of LD children. Method (1) Downloading the papers on children learning disability from www.cqvip.com and www.wanfangdata.com, in which, the articles were collected by key words from 1985 to 2005. To conduct meta-analysis on IQ construction, compare the case group and the control group, including full IQ, verbal and practice IQ. (2) Designed with model compared and self-compared, 59 diagnosed learning disability children, tested themes with WISC, ITPA and Berry’s VMI. WISC included 10 items, 5 of which subtotal to verbal and practice IQ respectively. IPTA included 10 items, too, 5 process of which subtotal to auditory and visual perception. The first 3 items shared representation level, the other 2 of that shared automatic level.VMI had one score. Analyzed factors and levels with description and Pearson Correlation. To probe to linguistic internal alternately functions of LD children, and compare the scores of groups in different IQ. (3) Analyzed the perspective questionnaire filled by parents. Early development facts compared with model groups. Factors relationships analyzed with Kendall correlation, KOM and Bartlett’s test of sphericity, Promax Rotation. Results: (1) There have been 319 papers related with LD, in which 36 with IQ and 14 valid reports have been analyzed by Meta. FIQ’s 95%CI (confidence interval) is 2.418 ~ 0.172, VIQ between the difficulty and non- difficulty group. C-WISC-R reports were 10 papers, of which, 95%CI of FIQ is 2.424 ~ 0.676, of VIQ is 2.314 ~ 1.196, of PIQ is 2.176 ~ 0.176. The VIQ comparing the PIQ, 95%CI is 1.1 ~ -0.07 in difficulty group and 0.5 ~ -0.0046 in non-difficult group. Nevertheless, in the other 4 tests, FIQ’s 95%CI is 2.00 ~ -0.818 between LD and NLD. (2) Children psycholinguistic abilities had strong relation with Berry’s VMI test excluding auditory reception, and with perceptive factor of intelligence excluding verbal expression. Auditory reception and visual closure had strong relation with FIQ and PIQ. Grammatic closure, visual association and manual expression had strong relation with concept factor. The representational and automatic levels are depended on integration of auditory and visual procession. Lower verbal expression (VE) let to lower expression process and low scores on representational level. Lower visual sequential memory (VSM) let to lower memory process and influenced automatic level. Groups compared by IQ 90 show that LD children with under IQ 90 had lower scores on items of IPTA than with up IQ 90 excluded verbal expression. It was proved that IQ administrated the linguistic ability. Nevertheless, general abilities deficiency didn’t show influencing on the types of the perceptive delay. There was mutual function among linguistic ability on LD children. Auditory and visual level are overlapped each other. Not only show higher Decoding and lower Encoding on Auditory perception, lower Decoding and higher Encoding on Visual perception, in representation, but also higher Sequential remember, lower Closure on Audition, and lower Sequential member, higher Closure on Vision, in Automation. Nevertheless, there was no different between Representational and Automatic level, which may be the relationship of parallel or evolution. (3) Major family factors were father’s education, occupation. Lower auditory perception related to unconcerned, lower visual perception related to premature delivery and written slowly. Threatened–abortion, childbirth-suffocated were known as influencing children’s IQ and later linguistic abilities. It wasn’t shown that dosage relationship with the types of perceptive delay. Conclusion: (1) The FIQ, VIQ and PIQ of Children with LD is lower than that of NLD group. There is no significantly different between VIQ and PIQ in LD and NLD groups. (2) The objectives of ITPA and WISC tests are differently. The psycholinguistic abilities had strong relation with perceptive factor and VMI. Some facts of IPTA related with FIQ. IQ had strong administration on linguistic abilities. There was mutual function among linguistic internal abilities. (3) Family facts on IQ and psycholinguistic abilities were Father’s education, abnormal pregnant and abortion. It would be pre-show development delay in early period.
页数75
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4376
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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童方. 学习困难儿童智力结构及其与心理语言、视动能力关系的研究[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2007.
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