小学学习不良儿童对言语交际策略的理解与运用
其他题名Comprehension and Application of Verbal Communication Strategies Characterized by Learning Disabled Children in Primary Schools
闫嵘
学位类型博士
导师俞国良
2007-05-28
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词学习不良 言语交际策略 社会观点采择
摘要[摘要]言语交际策略,意谓个体在人际交往过程中逐步获得的,指导如何在特定情境下借助言语符号理解与表达意图,从而实现交际目标并获得符合特定社会交往习俗效果的一种程序性知识。作为衡量个体社会性发展的重要指标,言语交际策略为探索学习不良儿童社会技能的发展规律提供了新的视角。然而,以往该领域研究在发展水平和内部机制方面仍存在不足,需要进一步探讨。本研究采用情境测验、结构访谈、自然实验等方法,以工具和人际交往效果相结合的指标,从理解和运用两个不同层面对小学3-6年级学习不良儿童的策略发展水平和特点进行了考察;接着,从社会观点采择、一般言语能力、策略理解与运用水平相互作用的角度揭示导致学习不良儿童策略发展滞后的根源;最后,通过社会观点采择行为训练和策略知识理解训练相结合的方式对学习不良儿童策略发展水平进行了干预。本研究主要有以下发现:(1)在言语交际策略理解水平的总体发展上,学习不良儿童均显著滞后,且表现出与一般儿童不同的发展趋势。对礼貌请求策略,学习不良儿童不存在显著年级和性别差异,而一般儿童则表现出随年级的增长而逐步提高的趋势;对于委婉应答策略,学习不良儿童在总体发展上存在显著的年级和性别差异。(2)学习不良儿童策略运用水平依策略类别而呈现出不同的发展特点。对于礼貌请求策略,学习不良儿童在总体发展上显著落后于一般儿童,且不存在显著的年级差异;而一般儿童则报告出显著的年级差异。对于委婉应答策略,学习不良儿童表现出类似于一般儿童的年级差异。但与一般儿童相比,学习不良儿童策略运用水平的滞后仅存在于11-12岁年龄段。此外,学习不良儿童在上述两类策略的运用上均不存在显著性别差异。(3)学习不良儿童社会观点采择与言语复述能力均显著低于一般儿童。学习不良儿童社会观点采择、言语交际策略的理解与运用水平之间存在显著正相关。然而,在不同策略类别条件下,言语交际策略的运用水平存在不同的影响路径。对于礼貌请求策略,理解水平在观点采择影响策略运用过程中发挥着完全的中介作用,而对于委婉应答策略,理解水平在观点采择对策略运用的影响中发挥着部分中介作用,但言语复述能力对策略理解与运用水平的直接影响均不显著。(4)社会观点采择与策略知识理解训练对学习不良儿童策略运用水平的提高具有积极效果。 关键词:学习不良,言语交际策略,社会观点采择
其他摘要[Abstract] Verbal communication strategy (VCS) refers to a programmed knowledge applied by individuals to understand and express intentions via language symbols in their realization of communicative objectives according to social conventions. As an important index of social development, verbal communication strategy has provided a new perspective for social skill studies. However, more work has to be done in the investigation of LD children’s VCS developmental pattern and affecting mechanism. Through contextual test, structured interview and role-play, the present study, by adopting integrated measurements of instrumental and interpersonal effectiveness, explored the developmental characteristics of Chinese learning-disabled primary school children across 3-6th grades at both comprehension and application levels. Then, their social perspective-taking performance and verbal retelling competence of each participant were examined, on the basis of which, path analysis was conducted, with social perspective-taking, verbal retelling and verbal communication strategy comprehension as independent variables, to reveal the inner mechanism affecting LD children’s application of verbal communication strategy. Finally, an intervention study was carried out through a combination of polite request strategy understanding lessons and social perspective-taking training dramas. The results indicate that:(1) No significant grade differences were found in LD group for polite request strategy, while significant differences were reported across different grades of non-LD children. For indirect reply strategy, significant grade and gender differences were found among LD children, but the developmental trajectory between the two groups was different. For both polite request and indirect reply strategies, the strategy comprehension level of LD children was significantly lower than those without learning disabilities. (2) No significant grade and gender differences were found in LD group in their application of polite request strategy, while for non-LD children, significant differences were reported across different grades. For indirect reply strategy, both LD and non-LD groups exhibited similar developmental characteristics. Significant group differences only exist in the over-all application level of polite request strategies, not in indirect reply strategies. However, the differences of the latter between the two groups were found at significant level only among the 11-12 year olds. (3) LD children’s perspective-taking and verbal retelling competence were significantly lower than those of non-LD group. For polite request strategy, the influence of social perspective-taking to strategy application was indirect and must be via strategy comprehension, while for indirect reply strategy, strategy comprehension was found to play as a partial mediator between social perspective-taking and strategy application. The influence of verbal retelling to strategy application was indirect on both types of strategies. (4) LD children’s strategy comprehension and social perspective-taking level can be improved, and the improvement of these two competences has significant positive impact on the increase of their strategy application level. Key Words: learning disabilities, verbal communication strategy, social perspective- taking
页数130
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4498
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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闫嵘. 小学学习不良儿童对言语交际策略的理解与运用[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2007.
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