大学生现实自我与理想自我差异的特点、产生机制和效应
其他题名The undergruaduate’s discrepancies between actual self and ideal self: its characteristics, developmental mechanisms and effects
杨荣华
学位类型博士
导师陈中永
2008-06-12
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词自我差异 现实—理想差异 自尊 稳定性 灵活性 教养方式 心理适应 动机 行为
摘要关于自我差异的相关观点由来已久,但是系统地研究自我差异还是从Higgins等人(1985)开始的。目前大部分研究来自国外,国内的研究较少。研究者们开展的大量研究发现了大学生现实—理想差异的很多特点,以及影响现实—理想差异的众多因素,也发现了现实—理想差异的许多消极影响——特别是现实—理想差异越大,则心理和行为越消极。但是,已有的研究还存在一些问题,如,我国大学生现实—理想差异的水平是高还是低?影响现实—理想差异有各种内外因素,但这些因素是如何对同一个体的现实—理想差异产生作用的?现实—理想差异又是在何等程度上对人们的心理、行为产生影响的?这种影响是消极的还是积极的? 该研究选取某中等水平的综合性大学的四个年级几个有代表性的专业的学生,采取问卷法进行调查研究,采取相关分析、回归分析、方差分析、路径分析等统计方法处理数据,主要探讨三个问题:当前我国大学生现实—理想差异的一般特点,各种环境因素、个人因素对同一个体现实—理想差异的整体作用机制、现实—理想差异对各种心理适应及有关动机、行为的效应。主要结果如下: (1)新改进的现实—理想差异测量工具具有较好的效度和信度,可作为进一步研究的工具。 (2)大学生现实—理想差异略低于中等水平;有较大现实—理想差异的人数比例较小;大学生现实—理想差异存在显著的性别差异但年级差异和专业差异不显著。 (3)该研究探查了家庭教养方式(环境因素)以及稳定性、灵活性、聪慧性、自尊等人格因素(个人因素)对大学生现实—理想差异的整体作用机制,结果表明,温暖理解教养方式、稳定性、灵活性、自尊对现实—理想差异的产生有重要影响,其中,自尊在温暖理解教养方式与现实—理想差异的关系中起完全中介作用,在灵活性、稳定性与现实—理想差异的关系中起部分中介作用。按作用大小而言,稳定性的作用最大,灵活性的作用次之,温暖理解教养方式的作用最小,聪慧性和其他教养方式对现实—理想差异无显著影响。就温暖理解教养方式、稳定性、灵活性怎样互相交织着影响现实—理想差异而言,温暖理解教养方式以稳定性、灵活性为完全中介对现实—理想差异起作用,稳定性、灵活性都对现实—理想差异有独立的作用。 (4)现实—理想差异在自我效能、自我认同、自我实现等心理适应指标上有消极效应,在用SCL-90所测量的9种心理症状上有消极效应,在活力行为、接近或回避动机、成就目标上同样有消极效应,但对掌握目标无显著影响。现实—理想差异与抑郁症状单独相关。 上述结果从自我差异的角度增进了人们对大学生有关自我认同的认识,丰富了个体自我发展的知识,进而增进了对人类个性发展的认识。该研究在关于现实—理想差异产生机制的两个关键问题上取得进展,使人们对现实—理想差异的产生机制的认识前进了一步。该研究还探讨了现实—理想差异与动机这一重要心理现象的关系,拓宽了现实—理想差异的研究领域。 研究结果肯定了现实—理想差异是影响大学生心理、行为的一个重要因素,其结论可为大学生心理健康教育、心理咨询实践提供诊断、干预策略的参考和指导。
其他摘要The arguments on self discrepancy can be traced back to the old ages, but the systematic investigations were started by Higgins et al. at 1985.Compared to the large number of foreign studies, only a few ones have been conducted in our own country. Numerous characteristics of undergruaduate’s actual-ideal discrepancy and a great many determinative factors have been found as well as many of its negative effects—especially the greater the actual-ideal discrepancy, the more negative on the mind and behavior. Nevertheless, there are still many issues to be solved, such as the extend of the undergruaduate’s actual-ideal discrepancy level in own country. On the other hand, although there are a great many internal and external determinative factors of actual-ideal discrepancy, how they overally influence the discrepancy of the same individual is still unknown; to what extent does actual-ideal discrepancy influence the human mind and behavior and whether the influence is positive or negtive? This research collected a sample consisting of 4 undergraduate grades and 5 majors from a middle-ranked university. We adopted questionnaires in the study, and analyzed the data using correlation analysis, regression analysis, variances analysis, and path analysis. Our aim focused on the general characteristics of the undergruaduate’s actual-ideal discrepancy in own country, the overall working mechanism of the determinative factors including environmental and personal factors on the actual-ideal discrepancy of the same individual, and the effects of the actual-ideal discrepancy on psychological adaption, motivation, and behavior. The main results are as following: (1)The improved measurement instrument possesses good validity and reliability, and can be used in future research. (2) The actual-ideal discrepancy level among undergraduates is slightly bellow medium. The proportion of undergraduates who have a higher actual-ideal discrepancy level is small. There is significant gender difference in actual-ideal discrepancy level, but no significant difference across different majors and grades. (3)This research probed the overall working mechanism of the parenting style(environmental factors) and the personality factors(personal factors) including stability, flexibility, cleverness, and esteem on the undergruaduate’s actual-ideal discrepancy. The results shows that the parenting style of warmth and understanding, stability, flexibility, and esteem influence the actual-ideal discrepancy. Esteem entirely moderate the relationship between the parenting style of warmth and understanding and actual-ideal discrepancy, partially moderate the relationship between the flexibility, stability and actual-ideal discrepancy. Furthermore, the above factors can be order as stability, flexibility, and parenting style of warmth and understanding in terms of decreasing impact on the actual-ideal discrepancy. No significant effect of cleverness and other parenting style was found. The parenting style of warmth and understanding, stability, and flexibility interactively influence the actual-ideal discrepancy in the following manner: the stability and flexibility, both of which have independent influence on the actual-ideal discrepancy, entirely moderate the relationship between the parenting style of warmth and understanding and actual-ideal discrepancy. (4) Actual-ideal discrepancy plays a negative role in adaption indices, including self-efficacy, self-identity, self-actualization. Actual-ideal discrepancy also has negative effects on the 9 symptoms measured by SCL-90, vitality, approach motivation, avoidance motivation, and performance goals. No significant influence on mastering goals was found. Actual-ideal discrepancy uniquely correlates with depression symptom. The above results contribute from the point of self-discrepancy to the understanding of self-identity of undergraduates, and they enrich the knowledge of the development of self and contribute to the understanding of the development of human personality.This research advances on the two key problems of the developmental mechanism of actual-ideal discrepancy and that promotes the knowledge of the developmental mechanism of actual-ideal discrepancy. The research probed the relationship between the actual-ideal discrepancy and motivation which is an important phenomenon and this enlarges the domain of the actual-ideal discrepancy research. The results make sure that actual-ideal discrepancy is one of the important factors influencing undergruaduate’s mind and behavior. The conclusions can provide reference and guidance in the diagnosis and intervension strategies for mental health education and counseling practice in university.
页数117
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4500
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杨荣华. 大学生现实自我与理想自我差异的特点、产生机制和效应[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2008.
条目包含的文件
文件名称/大小 文献类型 版本类型 开放类型 使用许可
10001_20031801250242(698KB) 限制开放--浏览 请求全文
个性服务
推荐该条目
保存到收藏夹
查看访问统计
导出为Endnote文件
谷歌学术
谷歌学术中相似的文章
[杨荣华]的文章
百度学术
百度学术中相似的文章
[杨荣华]的文章
必应学术
必应学术中相似的文章
[杨荣华]的文章
相关权益政策
暂无数据
收藏/分享
文件名: 10001_200318012502427杨荣华_paper.pdf
格式: Adobe PDF
此文件暂不支持浏览
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 

除非特别说明,本系统中所有内容都受版权保护,并保留所有权利。