运动距离效应的认知编码机制
其他题名The Amplitude Effect during Movement Programming
牛亚南
学位类型博士
导师罗跃嘉
2008-05-27
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词运动认知编码 运动距离效应 运动反应时间(RT) 运动执行时间(MT)
摘要在对运动相关的认知加工研究中,一个重要行为学研究手段是,使用不同的运动参数做为自变量,借以考察运动反应时间(reaction time,RT)和运动执行时间(movement time,MT)相应的变化。由于RT记录了从靶刺激呈现到被试开始发起运动之间的过程,因此被认为是反映了对即将发生运动的认知编码过程,而MT记录了运动的开始到运动结束之间的过程,被认为是反映了运动的执行过程。 然而,到目前为止,RT与运动参数之间的关系仍然很不确定,这种不确定性使得相关问题长期得不到解决,尤其是对于运动距离效应是否出现在RT或运动认知编码过程中、运动距离效应的内容究竟是怎样的一类问题,至今仍无明确定论。 本研究旨在通过对不同实验条件下运动距离效应的比较,对运动距离效应做全面、连续的考察,同时对运动的认知编码功能及其机制做更深入的探讨。首先,对RT可能包含的各组成部分进行了分析和总结,并在此基础上设计一系列实验,分别设置不同的运动ID、不同的实验指导语分别强调反应速度和反应准确率、在运动发起的同时切断视觉反馈以及使用Go/NoGo实验范式来考察和分析RT与运动认知编码过程之间的关系。同时,将运动距离效应放在各个特定的RT内进行考察和比较,以便对运动距离效应以及RT和MT的关系做出全面客观的描述。 研究结果发现:1)由于“视觉反馈”以及“速度-准确率平衡”等因素的存在,RT在不同实验条件下对运动编码过程做不同程度的反映。2)运动距离效应在不同的RT内表现为:当RT过于短时不足以表现出运动距离效应来;当RT得到延长时运动距离效应倾向于表现为近距离运动需要更长的RT;当RT得到进一步延长时,则难度较大的运动(远距离运动)需要花费更多的RT。3)在本实验条件下运动距离效应在MT内稳定的表现为远距离运动需要更长的MT。4)在本实验条件下RT与MT之间存在相互代偿的关系。 本研究具有重要的理论意义,运动的认知加工过程是人类认知行为中重要的组成部分,对其相关内容的研究可以帮助人们更好的认识自身以及自身和外部环境之间的关系。 关键词 运动认知编码;运动距离效应;运动反应时间(RT);运动执行时间(MT)
其他摘要Among the cognitive studies of action, an important behavioral method is used to observe Reaction Time (RT) and Movement Time (MT) as the functions of motor parameters. RT is measured from the beginning of target presentation to the initiation of a movement, which is regarded as the programming of the ongoing movement. MT is measured from the initiation to the end of the movement, which is regarded as the execution of the movement. However, the relationship between RT and motor parameters remains uncertain till now. Under the uncertainty many related issues cannot be settled for long period, especially the issues as whether the amplitude effect appears during RT, or what should the amplitude effect be during RT. The present study aimed to find out the amplitude effect and the related cognitive process under different experimental conditions. First, we discussed the potential composition of RT and suggested that RT that normally measured in previous experiments might not reflect motor programming very well. Then we designed a series experiments to observe the relationship between RT and motor programming by using different Index of Difficulty (ID), different instructions in which speed and accuracy were emphasized respectively, different vision condition during movement execution and Go/NoGo paradigm. Meanwhile, we compared the amplitude effect under the respective RT to make the specific conclusion about the amplitude effect, and the relationship between RT and MT as well. The main findings are showed as following. 1) Because of the existing of “preview”, “visual feedback control” and “speed-accuracy tradeoff”, RT reflects motor programming differently under different experimental conditions. 2) Under different experimental conditions, the amplitude effect on RT varies. RT could be too short to exhibit the amplitude effect. Or the amplitude effect could be that more RT is needed for shorter movement when RT is prolonged. Or the amplitude effect could be that more RT is needed for longer movement when RT is further prolonged. 3) Under the present experimental conditions, the amplitude effect on MT showed consistently that longer movement needs longer MT. 4) Under the present experimental conditions, the relationship between RT and MT is a kind of compensation. The present study has important theoretic significance. The cognitive process of action is an important part of human cognitive behavior. The related studies could be very helpful for human people to know about themselves and the relation between themselves and the surroundings as well. Keywords motor programming; amplitude effect; Reaction Time (RT); Movement Time (MT)
页数98
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4548
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
牛亚南. 运动距离效应的认知编码机制[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2008.
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