不同类型量表的线上调查和传统纸笔调查的比较研究
其他题名A Comparative Study of Different Types of Scales with Online Survey and Paper-and-pencil Assessment
李育辉
学位类型博士
导师张建新
2007-06-14
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词线上调查 纸笔测验 项目反应理论 等值性研究
摘要在短短11年间,互联网的快速发展使得越来越多的心理学家开始使用线上调查(Online Survey)这一方式进行研究的数据募集工作。但是对于这一新的方法得到的研究结果的可靠性和代表性,研究者们存在争论、意见不一。为了考察线上调查是否适用以及不同类型量表的适用性,本研究首先对测量工具进行了修订,然后从样本层面、量表层面、项目层面对线上调查和纸笔测验的结果进行了探讨。主要研究结果如下: 1.基于样本层面的研究中,对自由做答条件下线上调查的样本和随机抽样的纸笔测验样本进行了比较。结果发现,线上调查的样本在性别方面没有差异(p>0.05),但是具有高学历、高收入和年轻化的特点(88%的样本教育程度为大专或以上,而年龄集中在20-29之间,占整个样本的71%);线上调查与纸笔测验在人格和态度量表的得分上存在显著差异(p<0.01);对样本在人口学变量上进行控制后,线上调查与线下纸笔测验在神经质亚量表上的差异变得不显著(p>0.05)。 2.基于量表层面的研究中,采用组内平衡设计的方法,对同一组人在线上调查和纸笔测验中的作答结果进行信度、结构效度和平均分的等值性检验。结果发现在信度和结构效度上人格量表和一般性品牌态度量表的各个亚量表都能跨测验形式等值;但是在平均分上,品牌忠诚、神经质和面子量表上的得分在线上调查和纸笔测验中存在显著差异(p<0.05);排除年龄和性别因素后,只有品牌忠诚亚量表在线上调查中的得分仍然要显著高于纸笔测验(p<0.05)。 3.基于项目层面的研究中,运用项目反应理论的分析结果发现,双参数Logistic模型适用于人格和态度量表。人格量表中的开放性和宜人性亚量表出现了功能差异的条目,但是在测验水平上功能差异并不显著。 4.基于不同量表等级在线上调查和纸笔测验中的比较研究,考察了5/6/7/10四种等级类型的量表在线上调查和纸笔测验中的测量学指标。结果发现,不同评定等级的量表在线上调查和纸笔测验中具有不同的测量学效度,7等级量表更适用于线上调查,而6等级量的测量学指标最差。 总而言之,本研究的结果支持了人格量表在线上使用的可行性,但是对于态度量表需选取合适的工具进行,并要注意评定等级对于态度量表作答结果的影响。
其他摘要During the past 11 years, with the rapid development of the Internet, more and more psychologists began to realize and take advantage of it, which led to a growing number of psychological test administrated on the internet for data collection. But there were some controversy about the reliability and representatively of this new method. To examine the applicability of the Online Survey and how different types of scales used on the internet, we first reversed the measurement instrument, then from three different levels to investigate the equivalence of online survey and paper-and-pencil assessment, namely, sample level, scale level and item level. Both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory were used to analyze the invariance of different types of scale applicability on the internet. The main conclusions of this study could be drawn as follows: 1. In the sample-based study, self-select sample of the online survey was compared to the random sampled sample of paper-and-pencil assessment. The results showed there were no gender difference between them (p>0.05), but the online survey sample was characterized with high qualifications, high-income and younger features (88% of the sample with post-secondary education or above, and 71% aged 20 -29 years). There were significant differences on the scores of all scales between online survey and paper-and-pencil assessment (p<0.01). With demographic controlled, there was no significant difference on the variable of Neurotic between different surveys (p>0.05). 2. With in-group design, it was proved equivalence of the scale of BI (Attitude toward Brand Importance), BT (Attitude toword Brand Switcher), Extraversion, and Conscientiousbess in the compared study in the reliability, construct validity and average scores. 3. On the item level, the results based on the Item Response Theory analysis showed that 2PLM is appropriate for personality and attitude scales. With regard to personality scale, there emerged some items with DIF in the dimensions of Openness to the experience subscale and Agreeable subscale. However, there were no significant differences about the test function. 4. Exploring the psychometrics properties of answer formats of five-, six-, seven-, ten-points, it was showed that different measurement validity between online survey and paper-and-pencil test. It was also described the lower reliability and validity of six-point scale. In conclusion, the results support the application of personality scale online, but for attitude scale, we need to choose prudently.
页数93
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4552
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李育辉. 不同类型量表的线上调查和传统纸笔调查的比较研究[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2007.
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