社会困境中的行为决策――社会身份与地位的影响
其他题名Behavioral Decision-Making in Social Dilemmas: The Impact of Social Identity and Status
刘长江
学位类型博士
导师李纾
2008-05-17
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
学位专业应用心理学
关键词社会困境 嵌套社会困境 群体间关系 社会身份理论
摘要

    社会困境是指个体理性导致集体非理性这样的情境(Hardin, 1968; Messick & Brewer, 1983)。严重的社会现实促使越来越多的研究者关注社会困境问题,已有研究从个体差异、任务结构(决策结构和社会结构)以及知觉和策略等方面探讨社会困境中合作行为的影响因素,并提出相应的解决策略。
    为了理论发展的需要,实验室研究往往简化现实社会困境情境。因此,考察群体间情境下人们在社会困境中的合作情况的研究不多。另一方面,社会困境研究在美国以及西欧引起广泛关注,而在其他国家或地区很少得到考察。为此,本研究将社会困境研究拓展在群体间情境中,基于社会身份相关的理论,采用嵌套社会困境情境,考察不平等的地位差异对社会困境中人们行为决策的影响以及这种影响的解释机制。基于此,本研究设计了三项研究。
    研究一从自我与他人的关系角度界定自我,考察了自我和情境对群体内社会困境中合作行为的影响。结果发现,具有互依自我的人要比具有独立自我的人在社会困境中一致地表现出更高水平的合作,而不管群体情境如何。而那些具有独立自我的人则要根据情境来协调其合作行为,如果他们在群体中感受舒畅,他们也能表现出高水平的合作行为。结果支持了低群体互依情境下的独立自我会表现出更竞争的行为,而且这一效应可能部分上由他们对群体互动的感受所中介。
    研究二探讨了群体地位和个人地位对嵌套社会困境中不同实体的利益关注的影响及其可能的解释机制。结果发现,群体地位高的成员比群体地位低的成员给个人帐户分配更少代币,而给亚群体帐户分配更多代币;群体地位高的成员给更高层帐户的代币要多于给个人帐户的代币,而群体地位低的成员则正相反。这一结果显示群体地位(相比个人地位而言)对在社会困境中行为决策有着更重要的正性作用,而且,群体地位高促进了对亚群体利益乃至对集体利益的关注。结果还发现,群体地位与个人地位的合作效应受到性别因素的影响。对于个人地位,结果发现,认同内群体而不认同上位群体调节了个人地位对亚群体帐户分配量的效应,也就是,如果成员更认同内群体而更不认同上位群体,那么个人地位越高越愿意与内群体合作。
    研究三考察了地位稳定性以及认知分类对群体地位与社会困境中行为决策关系的影响。结果没有发现地位差异与地位稳定性交互影响人们在社会困境中的决策行为,但却证明了这种关系受被试认知分类的影响。当被试将自己分类为个体水平时,如果他们知觉到所安排的地位关系是稳定的,那么高地位群体中的成员比低地位群体中的成员给亚群体帐户分配更多代币;反之,如果他们知觉到其地位关系是不稳定的,那么高地位群体中的成员比低地位群体中的成员给个人帐户分配更多的代币,给集体帐户分配更少的代币。当被试将自己分类到亚群体水平时,如果他们知觉到所安排的地位关系是稳定的,那么高地位群体中的成员比低地位群体中的成员给集体帐户分配更少代币;反之,如果他们知觉到其地位关系是不稳定的,那么高地位群体中的成员比低地位群体中的成员给个人帐户分配更少代币,给亚群体帐户分配更多代币。
    总之,研究指出与内群体合作是社会和谐的基础,提高个人地位并进而提高整个群体的地位是促进与社会和谐的必要条件。然而,处于高地位群体中的成员一旦意识到其地位关系不稳定,他们可能更倾向于表现出自利行为;通过唤起集体身份,能够一定程度上促进他们与集体合作。研究结果为建构群体和谐、缓解社会矛盾提供心理依据和管理建议。

其他摘要

 
    Social dilemmas are defined as such situations in which short-term individual and long-term collective interests are at odds (Hardin, 1968; Messick & Brewer, 1983). Severe social problems lead more and more researchers to pay attention to the issue of social dilemmas. Until now, research has widely examined the factors influencing cooperation in social dilemmas, and provided solutions to social dilemmas.
    In the need of theory development, previous research generally simplified the situation of realistic social dilemmas. Therefore, few studies have explored the issue of cooperation in social dilemmas in an intergroup situation. On the other hand, there has been little empirical attention for such issues in countries outside of United States and Western Europe. To meet this gap, the present study grounded itself in social identity theories and examined the effect of unequal group status on behavioral decision making in social dilemmas. To this end, the study designed three experiments to examine how individuals with different group status response psychologically and behaviorally to cooperation in intragroup and intergroup social dilemmas.
    In experiment 1, the study examined how independent and interdependent self- construals affect cooperative behavior in an intragroup social dilemma. The results showed that when individuals were primed with interdependent (as opposed to independent) self-construal, they consistently contributed highly, regardless of context manipulation. In contrast, those primed with independent self-construal contributed less in the investment game but only when placed in a context where group members were encouraged to think about their individual (versus shared) fate. Results supported the idea that independent self-construal in a low interdependent context produces the most competitive behavior and that this effect was partially mediated by the feeling of interaction within a group.
    In experiment 2, the study examined how the effect of group status on different level of cooperation in a nested social dilemma was moderated by individual status, and what roles ingroup and superordinate identifications played in the above effect. Results found that individuals in higher status groups tended to allocate more to private account and less to subgroup account compared to those in lower status group; individuals in higher status groups allocated more to higher level accounts than to private account, whereas those in lower status acted in a reverse way. The results indicated that group status (compared to individual status) exerted a positive influence on behavioral decision making in social dilemmas, with higher group status contributing more to subgroup as well as collective interests. Results also found that the effect of group status and/or individual status on cooperation in social dilemmas was moderated by sex. As for individual status, results showed that the effect of individual status on subgroup interest was significantly moderated only by the combination of higher ingroup identification and lower superordinate identification.
    In experiment 3, the study explored how group stability and cognitive categorization interactively influenced the relationship between group status and behavioral decision making in a social dilemma. Results did not support the prediction that group status and stability interactively affected behavioral decision-making in social dilemmas. However, it was found that this relationship was moderated by which level individuals categorized themselves at. When categorization at the individual level was salient, individuals in high status group contributed more to subgroup account than those in low status group if they perceived a stable status hierarchy; whereas they contributed more to private account and less to collective account if they perceived that the status was instable. On the other hand, when categorization at the subgroup level was salient, individuals in high status group contributed less to collective account than those in low status group if they perceived that the status was stable; whereas they contributed less to private account and more to subgroup account if they perceived an instable status relation.
    In summary, the present study suggests that cooperation with ingroup forms the basis of social harmony, and higher status for everyone in any given group is a necessary for social development. On the other hand, individuals in higher status group tend to be more selfish once they realize that their current status hierarchy is unstable. However, activating their collective identity will to some degree increase the level of their cooperation with the collective. The study thus provides psychological explanations on how to construct group harmony and management suggestions on how to solve social conflicts.

学科领域心理学
页数125
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4622
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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刘长江. 社会困境中的行为决策――社会身份与地位的影响[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2008.
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