团队有效性:协作行为与作业特征作用机制研究
其他题名Team Effectiveness: the Effects of Teamwork Behaviors and Task Characteristics
李锋
学位类型博士
导师王二平
2008-06-30
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词团队有效性 作业特征 团队协作行为 IPO模型
摘要随着世界经济高速发展与日益全球化,技术的不断进步,作业复杂性的增加,工作团队已经取代个体成为工作组织的基本结构单元。工作组织的这一变化得到研究者关注,自上世纪90年代以来团队研究逐渐成为工业组织心理学与组织行为学研究的热点。诸多研究者以团队有效性为核心进行了大量的研究,总结出了IPO(Input-Process-Output)有效性模型,识别出若干影响团队有效性的因素。然而这些模型或研究忽略了团队成员在任务执行过程中动态的行为与交互——团队协作;并且作为诸多IPO模型中输入变量的作业特征也尚未得到关注。本研究在总结前人文献基础上,以Rousseau等人(2006)的团队协作行为多层概念结构模型、Hackman和Oldman(1975)的作业特征理论为基础,探讨作业特征、协作行为与团队结果变量间的团队有效性作用机制。通过对22家企业中110个团队的479名团队成员与110名团队领导问卷调查数据的分析得到如下结论: 一、团队协作行为包含任务分析、目标细化、计划、协调、合作、信息交换、绩效监督、后援行为、内部指导、集体问题解决、团队实践创新、心理支持与综合冲突管理13个要素维度;且具有多层结构特征,即13个要素维度可抽取为工作准备、作业相关合作行为、工作评价行为、团队调整行为与团队维护管理5个高阶因素;其中前4个高阶因素可概括为团队绩效管理行为,彼此之间存在顺序作用关系。 二、个体作业特征结构适用于团队作业特征,即:团队作业特征包含作业多样性、同一性、重要性、自主性、反馈与互依性6个维度。 三、团队作业特征、协作行为与团队结果间路径关系为IPO团队有效性模型提供了数据支持,即:作业意义与互依性通过团队绩效管理行为对团队绩效产生影响,其中作业意义直接作用于工作准备行为,而互依性对作业相关合作行为产生影响,且作业意义对团队态度变量有直接促进作用;自主性通过团队维护管理行为对团队态度变量产生影响。团队绩效管理行为作用体现在团队绩效方面,而团队维护管理行为作用则体现在团队态度上,其中团队绩效管理行为中的作业相关合作行为对团队绩效具有直接影响;此外,绩效管理与维护管理两类行为之间会产生相互影响。
其他摘要Organizations are increasingly turning to team-based structures to contend with the pressure of the increasing global competition, consolidation, innovation and need for diverse skills, expertise, and experiences. This ongoing transformation in the basic organization of work has captured the attention of researcher. And group and team research has become increasingly centered in the fields of organizational psychology and organizational behavior since the 1990s. A great deal empirical studies were conducted; a number of variables contributing to team effectiveness and several IPO models were summarized. But teamwork behaviors, the dynamic and adaptive interactions among team members during the task completion, were still very vague. So were the team task characteristics, an important input variable of the IPO models. The effects of team task characteristics and teamwork behaviors on team effectiveness were explored according to IPO model on the basis of the reviews on previous studies, the Hierarchical Conceptual Structure of Teamwork Behaviors (Rousseau et al.,2006), and the task characteristic theory(Hackman & Oldman, 1975). The questionnaire data from 479 team members and 110 team managers of 22 organizations were analyzed. The results indicate: A. Teamwork behaviors consist of 13 behavioral dimensions: team mission analysis, goal specification, planning, coordination, cooperation, information exchange, performance monitoring, backing-up behaviors, intra-team coaching, collaborative problem solving, team practice innovation, psychological support and integrative conflict management. The hierarchical conceptual structure was partly supported with five variable identified, i.e., preparation of work accomplishment, task-related collaborative behaviors, work assessment behaviors, team adjustment behaviors and the management of team maintenance. The formal four variables are in a sequential way. B. The task characteristic theory at individual level is applicable to the team level. This means that the team task characteristics consist of task variety, identity, significance, feedback, autonomy, interdependence. C. The correlations among task characteristics, teamwork behaviors and outcomes support the IPO model. The regulation of team performance mediated the effects of task meaningfulness and interdependence on team outcomes, with the direct effects of task meaningfulness on the preparation behaviors and the direct effects of interdependence on the task-related collaborative behaviors. The management of team maintenance mediated the effects of autonomy on team cohesion and satisfaction. The regulation of team performance has a direct effect on the team performance and the management of team maintenance. And the management of team maintenance has a direct effect on the team attitude and the regulation of team performance.
页数120
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4632
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李锋. 团队有效性:协作行为与作业特征作用机制研究[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2008.
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