10-14岁超常儿童的亲社会行为特点及影响因素
其他题名The Features and Determinants of Prosocial Behavior in 10- to 14-year-old Supernormal Children
韩茹
学位类型博士
导师施建农
2009-05-28
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词超常儿童 亲社会行为 智力 同伴关系 社会价值取向
摘要智力超常儿童的亲社会行为是否有别于普通儿童?在不同教育设置中,超常儿童的亲社会行为是否存在差异?这种差异的形成原因有哪些?本研究将就这些问题进行考察。 研究以10-14岁儿童作为研究对象,采用多种亲社会行为的研究方法(自评的亲社会倾向、他评的亲社会行为和假设情境中的亲社会行为),首先,考察各个年龄阶段亲社会行为的特点,以及各年龄阶段亲社会行为与智力之间的关系;其次,考察超常儿童的亲社会行为特点,以及超常儿童与普通儿童亲社会行为之间的差异;最后,考察不同教育设置中,超常儿童亲社会行为的差异,并着重探讨社会价值取向和同伴关系对不同教育设置中超常儿童亲社会行为的影响。研究结果如下: 1)14岁儿童的利他和依从亲社会倾向低于10-13岁儿童,而在他评亲社会行为、假设情境中的亲社会行为以及其他类别亲社会倾向方面都没有年龄差异。10岁儿童的智力与利他、情绪亲社会倾向之间呈正相关,12岁儿童的智力与同伴评价的亲社会行为之间呈正相关。 2)超常儿童与普通儿童的亲社会行为之间不存在显著差异。12岁超常儿童同伴提名的亲社会行为高于11岁和13岁超常儿童的水平。另外,他评亲社会行为结果发现女生显著高于男生,而自评和假设情境中亲社会行为没有性别差异。 3)通过对不同教育设置中超常儿童亲社会行为比较,发现同质群体中超常儿童在最后通牒游戏中亲社会行为水平高于异质群体中超常儿童。 4)不同教育设置中,超常儿童的社会价值取向有所不同,同质群体中超常儿童的社会价值取向更偏向于集体主义类型,而异质群体中超常儿童的社会价值取向更偏向于平均主义类型。但是社会价值取向对不同教育设置中超常儿童的亲社会行为不存在影响作用。 5)同伴关系对不同教育设置中超常儿童的亲社会行为具有影响作用。其中,同质群体中的超常儿童亲社会行为受到同伴接纳、同伴拒斥、社会偏好和社会影响的程度更低;而异质群体中超常儿童受到同伴接纳、同伴拒斥、社会偏好和社会影响的程度更高。
其他摘要Is prosocial behavior of supernormal children distinguished from normal children? Is there any difference between the supernormal children’s prosocial behavior from different educational placement? What are the mechanisms underlying the difference? The aim of this study was to examine these issues. With multiple methods of prosocial behavior, including other-rating, self-rating and hypothetical dilemma, we investigated the 10 to 14 year-old children. Firstly, the development of prosocial behavior and its relationship with prosocial behavior was examined. Secondly, we investigated the features of supernormal children’s prosocial behavior and analysed its difference with normal children. Finally, we tried to find the difference of supernormal children’s prosocial behaviour from different educational placement, and the mechanisms underlying the difference, such as social value orientation and peer relation. The results are as follows: 1)The altruistic and compliant prosocial tendency of 14 year-old children was obviously lower than those younger children. Intelligence was positively related with altruistic and emotional prosocial tendency for 10 year-olds, and with prosocial behaviour of peer nominated for 12 year-olds. 2)There was no significant difference of prosocial behaviour between supernormal and normal children. The peer nominated prosocial behaviour of 12 year-old supernormal children was higher than of 11 and 13 years old supernormal children. In addition, girls’ other-rating prosocial behaviour was significantly higher than boys’, but no gender difference was detected in the prosocial behaviour of self-rating and hypothetical dilemma. 3)With regard to the supernormal children’s prosocial behaviour in different educational placement, we found that the prosocial degree of the supernormal children of homogeneous groups was higher than that of heterogeneous groups in the role-change of ultimatum game. 4)The supernormal children from different educational placement had different social value orientation. More supernormal children of homogeneous groups belonged to the type of group enhancement, while more supernormal children of heterogeneous groups belonged to the type of equality. The types of social value orientation did not have impact on the supernormal children’s prosocial behaviour from different educational placement. 5)Peer relation moderated the impact of different educational placement on supernormal children’s prosocial behaviour.
页数107
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4718
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
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韩茹. 10-14岁超常儿童的亲社会行为特点及影响因素[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2009.
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