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态度结构一致性对态度-行为关系的影响:个体与群体水平的研究
Alternative TitleThe Effect of Attitude Structural Consistency on Attitude-Behavior Relationship: At Individual and Group Levels
周洁
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor王二平
2009-05-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral心理研究所
Keyword结构一致性 态度基础 情感-认知一致性 态度-行为关系 态度成分
Abstract近年来,作为社会心理学研究的核心领域,态度-行为关系研究的关注焦点已转移到调节变量上。本研究聚焦态度强度的一个维度——结构一致性对态度-行为关系的影响。结构一致性是态度的情感和认知两成分间的一致程度及其与总体态度的一致程度,包括情感-认知一致性和态度基础(评价-认知一致性和评价-情感一致性的整合)。以往有关结构一致性影响态度-行为关系的研究已验证了情感-认知一致性和态度基础分别对态度-行为关系的调节作用,但并未涉及两者的交互作用,也未区分实际行为与行为意向,且只在个体水平上收集数据。本研究采用实验室研究和问卷调查相结合的方法,在个体和群体水平上探讨不同领域中(商场态度和购物行为、政府官员态度和支持行为、被管理群体对管理群体的态度和攻击行为、民众对中央及地方政府工作的满意度和攻击行为)情感-认知一致性和态度基础的交互对态度-行为意向和态度-行为关系的影响,以及态度的情感和认知成分对总体态度、行为意向和行为的作用,得到如下结论: 第一,无论个体还是群体水平,结构一致性对态度-行为意向关系和态度-行为关系的影响基本相同,但在不同领域中结构一致性对态度-行为(意向)关系的影响存在差异,而且结构一致性对外显态度-行为(意向)关系的影响与其对内隐态度-行为(意向)关系的影响也不相同。 第二,个体和群体对政府官员的内隐态度、被管理群体对管理群体的内隐和外显态度以及民众对中央和地方政府工作的满意度均是认知成分主导的,群体对政府官员的支持意向和行为、被管理群体对管理群体的攻击行为以及民众的集体示威行为意向也是认知驱动的。 第三,群体情绪在群体攻击行为中具有核心重要作用,它与群体态度共同影响群体攻击行为,其中群体态度的影响通过攻击行为意向和群体情绪的中介,而群体情绪则直接影响群体攻击行为。 第四,无论个体还是群体水平,多数情境下内隐态度和外显态度可以共同预测实际行为,应同时采用内隐和外显方法收集态度数据;对于内隐态度测量,推荐使用专家评价所列文字法,而对于希望提升行为预测力的情绪数据,也应采用专家评价文字法进行测量。
Other AbstractSocial psychologists have long been interested in understanding the conditions under which attitudes influence behaviors, and they have formed two relatively independent theoretical perspectives in the attitude-behavior domain. One perspective, which we adopt in the present paper, focuses on investigating the effect of attitude strength on the attitude-behavior relationship. Specifically, the present research investigates the role of structural consistency, a dimension of attitude strength, on the attitude-behavior relationship. Structural consistency has typically been defined as the extent to which one aspect of individual’s attitude is consistent with either his or her overall attitude toward the object or the other aspect of the attitude, including affective-cognitive consistency (ACC), evaluative-cognitive consistency (ECC) and evaluative-affective consistency (EAC). The ECC and EAC can be integrated into the attitude base. Despite the evidence that structural consistency is associated with attitude-behavior relationship, there are some limitations in previous studies: (1) attitude base and ACC have been rarely studied together ;( 2) researchers often used the term behavior in a broad sense to encompass behavioral intentions as well as actual behaviors ;( 3) the effects were all investigated at individual level. The present research tried to explore the effects of ACC and attitude base on attitude-behavioral intention-actual behavior relationships at individual and group levels in different behavior areas including shopping, supportive behavior towards officials, and offensive behavior towards governors and central and local governments. The roles of affective and cognitive components of attitudes on general attitudes and following behaviors were also examined in this research. The results indicated that: A. At individual and group levels, the effect of structural consistency on attitude –intention relation is as the same as its effect on attitude-behavior relation, but it varies in different areas. On the other hand, the effect of structural consistency on explicit attitude-behavior relation is different from its effect on implicit attitude-behavior relation. B. The cognitive components of the individuals and groups’ implicit attitudes towards officials, the implicit and explicit attitudes towards governors, and the public’s attitudes towards central and local governments exert the stronger influence on general attitudes. Similarly, the cognitive components also exert the stronger influence on groups’ supportive behaviors towards officials and offensive behaviors towards governors and governments. C. Both group attitude and emotion can influence the group offensive behavior towards governors. The group attitude exerts its influence through the mediating effects of behavior intention and group emotion. The group emotion which is the core factor can exert the direct influence on group offensive behavior towards governors. D. At individual and group levels, the implicit and explicit measures should be used together to collect the attitude data, because the implicit and explicit attitudes can both predict behaviors under most conditions. It is the best implicit attitude measure to use the experts’ evaluations of listed words. And the emotion should be measured by the experts’ evaluations of listed words if the emotion data is used to predict the following behavior.
Pages166
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4726
Collection中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
周洁. 态度结构一致性对态度-行为关系的影响:个体与群体水平的研究[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2009.
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