烟草依赖者的注意偏向研究
其他题名preconscious attentional bias of cigarette smokers
闫晓丹
学位类型硕士
导师翁旭初
2008-12-25
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词烟草 成瘾 注意 意识 注意偏向
摘要复吸始终是药物成瘾的临床治疗和实验研究中的一个很棘手的问题。近期研究表明,心理依赖可能在成瘾复吸中发挥着甚至比生理依赖更重要的作用。这就出现了一个基本的问题:如何测量心理依赖的程度?当吸毒者离开戒毒者离开戒毒中心时,是否在心理上戒断了?常用的主观汇报方式无疑会受到种种认知因素的影响,尤其是在显性任务中。因此,需要一个客观的指标来衡量潜意识的心理依赖程度。本研究的目的就在于开发一种探测烟草成瘾者的无觉察的注意偏向的心理实验范式。 本研究的实验一采用双眼竞争的眼间抑制技术造成无觉察的条件,考察了烟草成瘾者和年龄相当的不吸烟者对于香烟图片的注意偏向。结果发现吸烟者在可见条件与无觉察条件下表现出类似的注意效应,而不吸烟者只在可见条件下表现出注意效应;同时实验条件和被试群组之间存在显著的交互作用。这种结果通过把种种意识因素的污染减小到最小,为吸烟者的成瘾特异的注意偏向提供了有力的证据支持。进一步地,吸烟者的无觉察条件下的注意偏向与其烟草成瘾的程度呈现显著的负相关,而他们实验前的香烟渴求程度则与他们的可见条件下的注意偏向表现出正相关;这一对相关进一步说明了无觉察条件对于揭示相对稳定的成瘾状态的优势,进一步支持了本研究中所采用的范式的效力。 实验一的另一个有趣的发现是不吸烟者在可见条件下也表现出注意偏向。实验二采用了相关文献中最常用的范式(点探测范式)和刺激(吸烟的场景图片),然而却重复了实验一的结果,从而排除了不吸烟者的注意偏向是由实验一的实验范式造成的可能性。我们认为这个现象的原因是环境的影响,因为本研究的被试生活在一个随处可见香烟并鼓励男性吸烟的环境中,这与相关文献的被试环境存在本质的区别。本研究所采集的系列问卷和量表也发现,多数吸烟者吸烟的主要原因是环境的影响,而他们也主观认为在中国吸烟是社交活动的重要组成部分,他们甚至认为远离吸烟的环境是有助于他们戒烟的有效途径。本研究还发现不吸烟者对于香烟图片和吸烟场景图片的厌恶程度与他们在实验一的可见条件的注意偏向是正相关的。很有可能在一个高度的鼓励吸烟的环境中,剩余的少数不吸烟者对于香烟和吸烟的情景具有强烈的厌恶,他们的注意偏向可能是由厌恶回避引起的。 总之,本研究是第一个表明烟草成瘾者存在无觉察条件下的注意偏向的研究,可为其他药物成瘾的研究提供借鉴。本研究还发现不吸烟的被试也对吸烟相关的刺激体现出注意偏向,这可能是高度鼓励吸烟的环境的影响的作用结果。
其他摘要Relapse has been a great challenge in clinical treatment and experimental studies of drug addiction. Recent studies suggest that psychological dependence may play a major role in addiction relapse, even more important than physiological dependence. Then a fundamental question arises: how to measure the psychological dependence? How to examine whether an addict has psychologically quitted when leaving drug rehabilitation centers? Self-report, a commonly used evaluation approach, is inevitably vulnerable to various cognitive influences, particularly in explicit tasks. Therefore, an objective index is necessary to evaluate the subliminal psychological drug dependence level. The objective of the current study was to develop such a psychological paradigm to probe the unaware attentional bias of in smoking addicts. Experiment 1 adapted the interocular suppression technique of binocular rivalry to study the attentional bias to cigarette pictures in smokers and age-matched nonsmoker. Results show that the smokers demonstrated similar attentional bias in both visible and unaware conditions, while non-smokers showed attentional bias only in the visible condition, and there was a significant interaction between experiment conditions and subject groups. These results provide compelling evidence for addiction-specific attentional bias in cigarette smokers, by minimizing the influence of confounding conscious factors. Furthermore, attentional bias of smokers in unawareness state was negatively correlated with their cigarette dependence levels, while their pre-test cigarette craving levels was positively correlated with their attnetional bias in the visible condition. This pair of correlations further demonstrated the advantages of unawareness state in disclosing stable dependence states, therefore supporting the effectiveness of the paradigm used in this study. Another interesting finding of Experiment 1 is that non-smokers also showed attentional bias in the visible condition. To exclude the possibility that the attentional bias found in experiment 1 was task-specific, experiment 2 adapted the most commonly-used visual dot probe task with smoking scenes as in relevant reference. The result in experiment 1 was well replicated, i.e., nonsmokers in experiment 2 also showed significant attentional bias to smoking-related stimuli, We interpenetrate this interesting finding as an effect of environmental influence, as the participants of the current study live in a highly smoking-exposed and smoking-encouraged environment, which is quite different with the participants of studies reported in the literature. A series of questionnaires and scales administered in the current study indeed show that most smokers smoked due to influence of the environment. They also acknowledged that smoking as an important media of social communication in China, and even considered that away from the smoking environment would effectively help them to quit. The current study also found that the disgust level towards cigarette pictures and smoking-related scenes of non-smokers was positively correlated with their attnentional bias in the visible condition of experiment 1. It is likely that in a highly smoking-encouraged environment, the remaining few on-smokers have severe disgust to cigarettes and smoking scenes; and their attentional bias might be caused by disgust avoidance. In conclusion, the current study represents the first study showing the existence of unaware attentional bias to smoking related stimuli in cigarette smokers by applying the interocular suppression paradigm, providing a reference to study of dependence of other drugs. The current study also found that our non-smoking participants also showed attentional bias to smoking related stimuli, which may be due to the possible influence of highly smoking-exposed environment of our participants.
页数56
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4778
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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GB/T 7714
闫晓丹. 烟草依赖者的注意偏向研究[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2008.
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