幼儿分类能力发展及促进的实验研究
王文忠
学位类型博士
导师方富熹
1997
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业发展与教育心理学
关键词幼儿 分类 类别 类别等级
摘要分类是一种基本的认知过程,类概念是人类认识世界的一个重要手段。同时,类别又是按照等级特性组织起来的,正是因为类别的特级特性保证了人类认知的经济性和推理的可能性。因此,儿童分类能力的发展一直是儿童心理学研究者观注的中心问题之一。本研究通过自发分类和教学引导相结合的方法,同时采用4-6岁幼儿熟悉的物体及实验中新形成的人工概念等多种刺激材料,系统探察了幼儿的分类标准问题;在此基础上,利用形成的人工概念体系,研究了幼儿对类别等级各种特性的掌握情况。本研究的主要结果和结论如下:1)4-6岁阶段幼儿的分类能力快速发展:4岁幼儿尚不能按照类别标准分类,但6岁幼儿在多种实验条件下已经能够按照类别标准进行分类,但是整个幼儿阶段按照类别标准分类的主要依据是同一类别物体之间的功能关系,而不是同类物体抽象的概念关系。同时,他们的分类标准还不稳定,容易受其他因素的影响,其分类能力仍然处理发展之中。2)5岁是幼儿分类能力发展比较敏感时期:5岁时幼儿的分类活动最容易受到实验条件变化的影响和教学活动的促进,保能是分类能力的最近发展区所在的时期。3)知识是影响幼儿分类能力的重要因素,同时幼儿的分类活动又受认知加工能力的制约:随着幼儿不同刺激材料了解和学习程度的不同,他们在分类活动中表现出的能力也各不相同。同时,即使儿童按照同样的标准具备了关于刺激材料的知识,但是由于不同年龄儿童认知加工能力的不同,其分类能力仍有显著差异。4)幼儿对类别等级的不同特性的掌握存在不同的发展顺序:5岁、6岁幼儿已经较好的掌握了类别等级的传递特性,不管学习程度如何,他们都能正确回答大部分传递性问题,能够根据总类的特征推论子类的特征。对于类别等级的不重叠性的掌握,5-6幼儿也达到了相当高的水平。但是幼儿对重叠性问题的回答容易受问题中暗示因素的影响,具有不稳定性。类别等级的不对称性是幼儿最难掌握的特性,由于他们不能掌握类别的包含关系,幼儿常常错误地根据子类的特性推论总类的特性。
其他摘要Classification is a kind of basic cognitive process, and category is an important way for human beings to define the world. At the same time, categories are organized in a hierarchical way, which makes it possible for human beings to process information efficiency. For those reasons, the development of classification ability is always one of the foci in developmental psychology. By using the methods of spontaneous and trained classification of both familiar stimuli materials and artificial concepts, this research explored the 4-6 year old children's classification criteria. And by the artificial concept system formed in these classification criteria experiments, the mastery degree of class hierarchy in these young children was analyzed. The main results and conclusions are: 1) The classification ability increases quickly among kindergarteners from 4 to 6 year old: the 4 year old children seemed unable to classify objects by classificatory criteria, however, the 6 year ones had shown the ability in many experimental conditions. But the main basis of classificatory criteria in these young children, including 6 year old ones, was the functional relation of the objects but the conceptual relations, and their classification criteria was not consistent because they seem to be easily affected by experimental conditions. 2) The age of 5 is a more sensitive period of classification ability development: for the children of 5 year old, it was found that their classification ability was easily enhanced by training. The zone of proximal development in classification ability by category standard could probably lie in this period of age. 3) Knowledge is an important factor that affects young children's classification ability, meanwhile, their classification activity are affected by cognitive processing ability: young children exhibited different classification ability as they had different understanding of stimuli materials. Kindergarteners of different age were significantly different in their classification ability as the difference in cognitive processing ability, even if they had the same knowledge about the stimuli materials. 4) Different properties of class hierarchy are different in difficulty for young children: the 5-6 year old children showed that the could master the transitivity of the class hierarchy. No matter under what learning condition, they could answer most of the transitivity questions correctly and infer the property of the sub-class according to that of the super-class. The young children at 5-6 years old had mastered the branching property of class hierarchy at a relative high level, but their answers were easily affected by the hints in the questions. However, it seemed that the asymmetry of class hierarchy was difficult for young children to learn. Because young children could not understand the class inclusion relation, they always drew wrong conclusions about super-class from sub-class in their classification.
页数67
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4792
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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王文忠. 幼儿分类能力发展及促进的实验研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1997.
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