Institutional Repository, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
|关键词||长时记忆 图形 复述 表征 提取|
Information can be represented both conceptually and imaginarily in long-term memory. However, it seems that only conceptual representation appears, neglecting imaginary information, in most of the long-term memory (LTM) models. In the matter of fact, picture can be stored in LTM directly and conceptually. There is no evidence for what specific type of information, conceptual or imaginary, for the color, shape, or texture to be represented. However, it is evident that the shape and color can be represented separately in LMT. Further research is needed on whether features are represented separately or not, such as color and texture, texture and shape etc. Rehearsal plays important role in picture memory besides the types of storage and representation. Memory of picture is indeed enhanced by rehearsal. There are two types of rehearsal. One is for creating image, another is articulatory loop. Which one will be taken during picture memory process depends on the characteristics of stimuli, subjects' encoding preferences and/or task requirements. Nevertheless, the relation between two types of rehearsal is not very clear yet up to now. Different features could be activated at different time course or possibilities since they can be represented separately. Six experiments were conducted dealing with the characteristics of representation, rehearsal and retrieval of picture in LTM. From these experiments, further understanding of picture information processing was expected. It would add more evidence to the LTM models, and make practical sense to the computer visual identification. The first two experiments were based on the paradigm from Hanna et al.(1996) to investigate separable representation of texture and shape, texture and color. The results indicated that texture could be represented separately with color and shape respectively. It suggested that different features might be processed in different way during remembering. Another interest finding is that recognition performance for shape, color and texture are quite different. What for shape is highest, for color is lowest, and for texture is between of them. Three features of picture can be represented separately. How about the roles of rehearsal when they enter the LTM from short-term memory(STM)? The second three experiments assigned three different types of rehearsal, i. e. visual, verbal, and subject-run(might be both of visual and verbal). The findings are that performances of picture memory were affected significantly by different types of rehearsal. Both visual and verbal rehearsal played important role during remembering process. It seems that verbal rehearsal, which might enhance the relative strength of memory trace, was much more effective than visual one. In addition, subjects tended to choose those difficult-to-name, features to rehearse, to improve the memory performance. Only two features were changed in each of the first two experiments. They might interact (facilitate or disturb) each other when they were retrieved. So it was difficult to identify the retrieval difference between them. In the last experiment, easy-to-name pictures were studied, and only one feature could be recognized. The results indicated that the retrieval performances of three features(shape, color, and texture) were quite different. They were different on the relative strength of memory trace, with the shape was strongest, color was lightest, and texture was in between. No difference was found on the absolute strength of them.
|丁锦红. 长时记忆中图形不同特征的加工与提取[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1998.|