长时记忆中图形不同特征的加工与提取
丁锦红
学位类型博士
导师林仲贤
1998
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业普通心理学
关键词长时记忆 图形 复述 表征 提取
摘要

长时记忆中,信息可以分别以抽象和形象两种形式进行表征。然而,从长时记忆的模型来看,似乎只承认信息以抽象方式存在,因为绝大多数模型都是语义模型,只强调了记忆中的一类信息,而忽视了另一类信息——形象信息。实际上,长时记忆中的图形特征既可以按一定方式被直接储存,也可以按抽象形式存储。虽然目前尚无法确定图形特征(形状、颜色等)分别以何种方式存储,但可以肯定,图形的颜色和形状可以分开表征。需要进一步研究的是,其它特征之间是否也是可以分开表征的。除了存储与表征方式以外,图形的复述也是图形记忆的重要部分。复述对图形记忆肯定有促进作用。图形复述包括视觉形象方式和抽象的言语方式两种。采取哪种复述方式可能取决于图形材料本身特性,或者受到记忆者的编码偏好、任务要求等因素的影响。这两种复述之间的关系还不太明确。如果图形的不同特征可以分开表征、存储,那么,在提取过程中,可能并非所有图形特征都同时被激活,或激活水平间存在差异,因此,它们的提取可能性也将有所不同。本文从长时记忆中图形特征的表征、复述和提取三个方面对图形信息加工进行了研究。对这些问题的探讨,能够深入了解图形在长时记忆中的加工特点,丰富长时记忆模型和表象的研究结果,并对计算机视觉识别也有一定的实践意义。第一部分研究中的两个实验以Hanna等(1996)的实验范式为基础,探讨了图形的质地与形状、质地与颜色之间表征关系。实验结果表明,图形的质地可以分别与形状、颜色分开表征,这一结果提示,人们在记忆图形时,可以把图形的不同特征按分离方式进行加工。同时,通过对两实验结果的比较发现,图形的形状、颜色和质地的记忆难度之间存在差异,形状最易,颜色最难,质是居中。第二部分分别研究了自由复述、言语复述和视觉复述条件下的图形记忆特点。结果表明,不同复述条件对图形记忆产生明显影响,图形复述既可以是视觉的,也可以是言语的,其中以言语复述更为有效,它对记忆痕迹的绝对强度具有明显改善作用。当两种复述同时进行时,可能会加强图形记忆痕迹的相对强度。另外,被试在复述图形时,更倾向于选择那些难以命名的特征作为复述对象,以提高记忆效果。第一部分研究的两个实验所选用的再认图形包含两个特征,它们之间可能会产生相互干扰或促进,并且其中的学习图形也仅有两个特征在变化,所以,它不能说明这三个特征在提取时的差异。第三部分研究选用了一些易命名特征所构成的图形作为记忆材料,只再认单个特征(形状、颜色或质地)。结果显示,三个特征的提取成绩仍然存在差异,它们之间的差异仅表现在记忆痕迹的绝对强度上,形状最强,颜色最弱,质地居中;而相对强度间无差异。本研究表明,图形加工倾向于特征分离,不同特征的加工水平、存储特性以及提取可能性之间都存在差异。将来可以用定量化方法对这些差异进行进一步探索。

其他摘要

Information can be represented both conceptually and imaginarily in long-term memory. However, it seems that only conceptual representation appears, neglecting imaginary information, in most of the long-term memory (LTM) models. In the matter of fact, picture can be stored in LTM directly and conceptually. There is no evidence for what specific type of information, conceptual or imaginary, for the color, shape, or texture to be represented. However, it is evident that the shape and color can be represented separately in LMT. Further research is needed on whether features are represented separately or not, such as color and texture, texture and shape etc. Rehearsal plays important role in picture memory besides the types of storage and representation. Memory of picture is indeed enhanced by rehearsal. There are two types of rehearsal. One is for creating image, another is articulatory loop. Which one will be taken during picture memory process depends on the characteristics of stimuli, subjects' encoding preferences and/or task requirements. Nevertheless, the relation between two types of rehearsal is not very clear yet up to now. Different features could be activated at different time course or possibilities since they can be represented separately. Six experiments were conducted dealing with the characteristics of representation, rehearsal and retrieval of picture in LTM. From these experiments, further understanding of picture information processing was expected. It would add more evidence to the LTM models, and make practical sense to the computer visual identification. The first two experiments were based on the paradigm from Hanna et al.(1996) to investigate separable representation of texture and shape, texture and color. The results indicated that texture could be represented separately with color and shape respectively. It suggested that different features might be processed in different way during remembering. Another interest finding is that recognition performance for shape, color and texture are quite different. What for shape is highest, for color is lowest, and for texture is between of them. Three features of picture can be represented separately. How about the roles of rehearsal when they enter the LTM from short-term memory(STM)? The second three experiments assigned three different types of rehearsal, i. e. visual, verbal, and subject-run(might be both of visual and verbal). The findings are that performances of picture memory were affected significantly by different types of rehearsal. Both visual and verbal rehearsal played important role during remembering process. It seems that verbal rehearsal, which might enhance the relative strength of memory trace, was much more effective than visual one. In addition, subjects tended to choose those difficult-to-name, features to rehearse, to improve the memory performance. Only two features were changed in each of the first two experiments. They might interact (facilitate or disturb) each other when they were retrieved. So it was difficult to identify the retrieval difference between them. In the last experiment, easy-to-name pictures were studied, and only one feature could be recognized. The results indicated that the retrieval performances of three features(shape, color, and texture) were quite different. They were different on the relative strength of memory trace, with the shape was strongest, color was lightest, and texture was in between. No difference was found on the absolute strength of them.

页数62
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4796
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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GB/T 7714
丁锦红. 长时记忆中图形不同特征的加工与提取[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1998.
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