异文化圈社会规范层次结构模型的比较研究
郑晓明
学位类型博士
导师方俐洛
1998
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业工业心理学
关键词社会规范 管理冲突 层次结构模型 内控规范 外控规范 跨文化比较研究
摘要本论文从社会规范论的立场来探讨管理与文化的关系。通过访谈、个案分析、问卷调查、结构方程等多种研究方法与技术手段来系统研究中日美三国社会规范层次结构模型的差异。结果表明:(1)无论是中国人、还是美国人、日本人,其社会规范的基本类型都是相同的,均由内控与外控两类规范组成。并且,构成内、外控规范的基本维度也是一致的,包括伦理道德、价值取向、法律规章和社会习俗四个维度。但由于文化背景的影响,社会规范各个维度有层次之分,组成了层次结构系统。(2)尽管三国之间有着相同的规范维度,但组成各规范维度的具体规范,既有超越特定文化的共同规范,又存在着依存于特定文化的特殊规范。(3)中日两国的社会规范的基本结构是一致的,都是以内控规范为主,外控规范为辅。中国人在内控规范中,以伦理道德为主,价值取向为次;在外控规范中,法律规章为主,社会习俗为辅。而日本人的行为规范在内外控层次结构中,各维度的关系与中国人相反。(4)与中国人的社会规范结构模型相比,美国人的社会规范以外控为主,内控为辅。在外控的两个维度中,法律规章为主,社会习俗为次;在内控规范中,价值取向主导着美国人的行为方式,道德伦理退居次要。(5)通过问卷调查与个案研究发现,与管理行为有关的规范因素主要包括工作责任、组织承诺、会议决策、沟通方式、工作义务和人际冲突等六项因素。中、日、美三国管理者在管理规范上存在显著差异。社会规范的文化差异是导致管理冲突的根本原因。
其他摘要The relationship between the management and the culture was explored from the view of social norm's theory. In concrete terms, the differences of the hierarchical structure of the social norm among the Chinese, the Japanese and the American were studied systematically by using interview, case study, questionnaire survey and the structure equation model, etc. The results were: (1) The basic two types of the social norms of the Chinese, the American and the Japanese were the same: the external control norm and the internal control norm. The basic dimensions of the two types of norms composed of moral principle, value orientation, the law and the rules, and the social custom were consistent among the three countries. Furthermore, the dimensions of social norms were hierarchical because of the functioning of the different culture, which consisted of the hierarchical structure system. (2) Although there were the same dimensions among the three countries, the contents of these dimensions had both the common norms surpassing the specific culture and the particular norms depending on the specific culture. (3) The basic structures of the social norms in China and in Japan were the same: the internal control norms played a main role and the external control norm was auxiliary. On one hand, within the internal norm of the Chinese, the moral principle was the main force while the value orientation was the supplementary; within the external norm, the law and the rules was the main force while the social culture custom was supplementary. On the other hand, the relationship between the external and the internal dimensions of the Japanese turned out to be contrary to those of the Chinese. (4) The structure of the American social norms were different from the Chinese: for the American, the external control norm played a main role while the internal control norm was assistant. Furthermore, the law and the rule was the major aspect while the social costumes was the second in the external control dimension. In addition, the value orientation led the performance style of the American, while the moral principle played the second role in the internal control structure. (5) The social norms related to the management performance were found including work responsibility, organization commitment, meeting making-decision, communication style, work duty and interpersonal conflict by inventory and case study. The mangers from China, Japan and America had significant different views on paying attention to the management norms. In a word, the culture differences of the social norm were the fundamental reason of the management conflict.
页数96
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4798
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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郑晓明. 异文化圈社会规范层次结构模型的比较研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1998.
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