中国企业员工组织承诺研究
张治灿
学位类型博士
导师凌文辁
1998
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
关键词组织承诺 心理合同 员工满意度 组织支持度 利他行为 验证性因素分析 路径分析
摘要本研究运用深度访谈、小组座谈、问卷调查等方法深入地探讨了中国企业员工心理承诺行为的结构、影响因素以及不同承诺员工的行为表现。在数据处理上,既采用了传统的方差分析、交叉分析、因素分析等统计手段,也运用了目前较为前沿的结构方程分析手段,包括验证性因子分析、验证性二阶因子分析、路径分析等。整个研究主要由三部分组成:(1)探讨了企业员工组织承诺的心理结构,提出的中国企业员工组织承诺的五因素模型,即主要有五种最基本的承诺类型,包括感情承诺、规范承诺、理想承诺、经济承诺、机会承诺。由这五种基本承诺类型又可以组合出五种组合承诺类型,即感规承诺、感理承诺、感经承诺、规理承诺、机经承诺。(2)分析部分因素对五种基本承诺类型的影响作用。影响感情承诺的因素主要包括:员工对领导的信任、组织对员工生活的支持、组织的可依赖性等;影响规范承诺的因素主要包括:员工过去所受的教育背景、员工的生活环境、员工工作的团体等;理想承诺主要受到:员工对领导的信任、员工受教育程度、员工所处的职位、领导的工作导向行为、员工对晋升满意度、员工对工作满意度等因素的影响;经济承诺主要受到:员工的年龄、员工的社会公平交换态度、员工对领导的信任等影响的影响;机会承诺主要受到:组织对员工生活的支持度、组织的可依赖性、员工的社会交换态度、员工改行的可能性等影响的影响。(3)探讨了不同承诺员工的绩效表现。感情承诺的员工对单位表现出极大的热情,乐于帮助单位、帮助领导、帮助同事;规范承诺的员工习惯于按照社会规范、良心等标准做事情,要求自己尽可能地努力工作,为单位提建议;理想承诺高的员工乐于工作,乐于接受来自工作的挑战,常常体验到工作成功的乐趣;经济承诺的员工一方面感到来自领导、工作的压力,另一方面又非常担心失去既得的利益,为了保住既得的利益者留在单位;机会承诺的员工斤斤计较,时刻想找一个好的工作,但又感到找工作的机会太少。本研究由于涉及到多个量表的修订,特别是花费了大量时间建构承诺量表。因此,先后在近20家国有、集体、外商独资、合资企业做过调查,总共样本量达到5000人左右。
其他摘要The research objectives were to investigate the psychological structure of employees' organizational commitments(OCs), and its antecedents, and to examine the relative effects of employees' OCs to their performances. In order to deeply uncover the nature of OCs, some standard methods, such as in-depth interview, focus-group, semi-open questionnaire, standard questionnaire etc., were employed. In data analysis, not only some common statistical methods, such as multivariate analysis of variance, cross-table analysis, factor analysis, but also some forefront ones, such as confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis of SEM, were used. The paper covers six chapters: 1) In the first chapter, Firstly some previous empirical studies, which examined structures, antecedents, correlates, and/or consequences of organizational commitment in China and Western countries, were summarized. This summary covers most of the respectable researchers' works of this field, such as H.S.Becker, B.Buchanan, L.W.Porter, G. Ritzer, H.M.Trice, J.A.Alutto, L.G.Hrebiniak, R.T.Mowday, J.P.Meyer, N.J.Allen, G.W.McGee, R.C.Ford, R.Eisenberger, etc. Then three theoretical hypothesis were put forward as following: ① In China, OCs should be multidimensional psychological structures, which means there should exist more than one type of OCs; ② There should be some different antecedents to different OCs; ③ Employees with different types of OC should perform differently in their works. Finally the theoretical and practical significance were discussed. 2) In the second chapter, great efforts were made to investigate the OC types. Firstly, in-depth interview with managers and employees, semi-open questionnaire, and some other methods were used in the pilot research to gather much qualitative material. Then OC questionnaire was designed to get quantitative data in about 20 enterprises, including state-owned, collective-owned, wholly foreign-funded, and joint-ventures. During revising of this questionnaire, there were about 5000 samples surveyed. after factor analysis, the data shows that there should be 5 types of OCs in China, which were respectively named as Affective Commitment, Normative commitment, Ideal Commitment, Economic Commitment, Choice Commitment. Thirdly, confirmatory factor analysis method was used to successfully confirm this 5-factor model. Finally, Cronbach a and test-retest correlate indicate that this questionnaire is reliable. Since factor analysis result has show its construct validity, a simple criterion-related validity research was conducted. 3) In order to investigate the correlation between different OC and employee performance and different antecedents of OC, 5 other questionnaires, such as Employee Satisfaction Questionnaire, Perceived Organizational Support Questionnaire, Social Exchange Questionnaire, Altruism Scale, and Leader Confidence Scale were revised in the third chapter. 4)In the fourth chapter, a lot of correlates, cross-table analysis were conducted to show the correlation between different OCs and 10 performances, which indicate employees with different OCs will show different performance in 10 variables, such as altruism, etc. 5) In the fifth chapter, correlate analysis, multivariate of analysis, and path analysis of SEM were used to investigate the antecedents of OC. A satisfactory model showing the correlation between OC and their antecedents was confirmed. 6) In the last chapter, all researches about OC, and its limitations were summarized.
页数89
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4812
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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张治灿. 中国企业员工组织承诺研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1998.
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