线索语义相容性的研究
刘艳芳
学位类型博士
导师张侃
1998
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业应用心理学
关键词刺激-反应相容性 线索语义相容性 自动激活 线索有效性
摘要随着对刺激-反应相容性原理的研究,越来越多的人认为相容性不仅存在于刺激和反应、刺激和刺激之间,还应该存在于信息加工过程的任两个阶段间,即相容性是人类信息加工过程的基本特征之一。对前置线索相容性效应的研究无疑是支持这个观点的有力证据。维度重合模型(Kornblum, 1990)在解释相容性机制时,强调了集合间维度重合将自动激活相容反应的过程,相容反应对任务反应的促进或阻碍,产生了相容性效应;并由于自动激活过程与任务加工的时距带来了相容性的适时动态性(Kornblum, 1997)。以上假设在解释刺激-反应相容性时,得到了广泛的支持,却没有应用于对线索相容性的研究。同时,随着环境心理学的兴起,外部信息对信息加工过程的影响引起了人们关注,线索的有效性能否影响相容性呢?此外,由于线索相容性的出现,与刺激-反应相容性的关系又如何呢?对这些问题的探讨,能够深入了解人类信息加工过程的特征,丰富对相容性现象和机制的研究结果,拓宽相容性研究的范围,并对人机系统的设计有一定实践意义。本研究运用前置线索技术,探讨了线索语义相容性的产生机制和影响因素。研究考察了不同刺激-反应相容性条件下,线索与刺激、线索与反应的维度关系对命名反应时的影响,是否符合的维度重合相容性效应的假设?线索与刺激的时间间隔(SOA)和线索有效概率对线索相容性效应的影响。实验结果提示,线索相容性效应是存在的,并具有以下性质:1 线索相容性的出现符合维度重合模型,与刺激、反应存在维度重合的线索影响了信息加工,其中与它们维度重合且一致的线索能促进加工过程,反应时较短,而与它们维度重合不一致的线索阻碍了加工过程,反应时较长;2 线索相容性具有一定适时动态性,SOA是影响线索相容性的一个重要因素,支持了自动激活假设,较短或较长的SOA下,线索相容性效应较小,只有在中等SOA水平下,可以获得最大的线索相容性效应:3 线索有效性影响了线索相容性,线索相容性效应随着线索有效性的增加而增强;4 线索相容性影响了刺激-反应相容性,即使在无刺激-反应相容性时,线索-刺激的相容性极大地影响了信息加工过程;5 作为线索相容性的两种类型,线索-刺激相容性和线索-反应相容性都存在,当两者发生冲突时,表现为线索-刺激相容性强于线索-反应相容性;通过本研究可以初步作出以下结论:存在着线索的语义相容性,进一步证实相容性是信息加工过程的基本特征;线索的语义相容性支持了维度重合模型和自动激活假设;线索有效性是线索语义相容性的一个影响因素;线索语义相容性影响了刺激-反应相容性,不同类型的线索相容性有一定强弱关系。
其他摘要With the studies of the Stimulus-Response Compatibility (SRC), more and more psychologists consider that the compatibility isn't only exist between stimulus and stimulus, response and response, but also any two sets in the information processing, it means that the compatibility is the basic feature of the human information processing. Research on the compatibility of the precue is a powerful evidence to support the issue. Dimension Overlap Model (Kornblum, 1990) is one of the most popular models to explain the mechanism of the SRC which focus on the dimension overlapping between the stimulus and response will activate the compatible response automatically, the compatibility effects origin from whether the compatible response prove or interference the response, the so the time course between the automatic activation and the task processing cause the dynamical time feature of the SRC (Kornblum, 1997). Yet the DO model has gotten many supports, it hasn't been tested in the paradigm of the precue task. At the same time, company with the development of the Environment Psychology, the effect of the ex-information in the environment on the inside information processing has drown much attention, does the validity probability of the cue have any influence on the cue compatibility? How about the relationship of the cue compatibility and the SRC? Research on the questions will reveal the characteristics of the human information processing, enhance the knowledge of the compatibility phenomena and resource, enlarge the field of SRC and produce more practice usage on the design of human-machine system. The mechanism and influence factors of symbolic compatibility between cue and stimulus were investigated within a precueing paradigm. The influence of the dimension overlapping relation between the cue and the stimulus, cue and the response on the reaction time were studied under the different kinds of SRC, to test whether or not it confirms the dimension overlap hypothesis, to test is there any effect of SOA and validity probability of cues on the cue compatibility. The results showed that the cue compatibility exists and owns such features: 1, It confirms the dimension overlap model that the cue which dimension overlapped with the stimulus or the response will influence the efficiency of the processing, the reaction time is shorter when the cue is congruent with the stimulus or the response that that of the incongruent cue; 2, Consistent to the automatic activation hypothesis, the time course is the important characteristic of the cue compatibility. The largest compatibility effect can be gotten from the middle duration of SOA. 3, The validity probability of cues influence the cue compatibility significantly, the strength of the cue compatibility effect grows stronger with the higher validity probability of cues. 4, The cue compatibility affect the effect of SRC, especially when the cue is compatible with the stimulus; 5, The cue compatibility has two-fold meaning, the cue-stimulus compatibility and the cue-response compatibility, the former is stronger than the later when they compete each other. In summary, the compatibility, the basic feature of human information processing, is proved by the research, and the dimension overlap model and automatic activation hypothesis is tested by the studying on the cue compatibility.
页数58
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4832
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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刘艳芳. 线索语义相容性的研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1998.
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