中学生问题解决中操作要求对资源分配的影响
张慧
学位类型博士
导师朱新明
2000
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业认知心理学
关键词中学生 问题解决 操作要求 认知资源 “代价-收益分析”策略 建构主义学习观
摘要图式获取是学习的一大机制,如何设计合理的学习材料来促进图式获取是心理学研究者和教育工作者们所共同关注的问题。Sweller.J等人所提出的认知负荷理论认为:人的认知资源有限,学习材料的组织和呈现应尽量避免使学习者消耗资源于和图式获取无在的活动。如何才能做到这一点?Sweller.J等人认为:增加学习材料的操作要求会使学习者用于执行操作的资源增多,这种资源消耗是与图式获取无关的,因而,为了使学习者能有更多资源投入与图式获取有关的活动,应降低学习材料的操作要求。O'Hara等人的研究却表明:大学生在解决知识贫乏领域问题时,增加问题的操作要求,反而将更多的资源用于问题理解和问题计划之中,从而可促进图式获取。那么操作要求对中学生问题解决中的图式获取和资源分配的影响作用究竟如何?这是本文所要探讨的主要问题。本研究通过三个实验表明:中学生在问题解决中,若增加问题的操作要求,则解题者会将更多资源投入到问题计划、问题理解之中。表现为实际的操作行为减少而计划行为和问题理解行为增加,图式获取效果更好。本研究运用“代价-收益分析”策略对此进行解释。所谓“代价-收益分析”策略是指:人是理性人,在从事某一活动之前,会对从事该活动所需付出的代价和将能获得的收益进行权衡,若收益高于代价,则从事该活动;反之,则会抑制该活动的执行。在该策略作用下,增加操作要求,则问题解决者会抑制其操作行为,从而将更多资源用于问题理解和问题计划之中,使图式获取效果更好。该研究在肯定认知负荷理论的“人的认知资源有限,学习或问题解决中应将有限资源投入到与图式获取(或规则自动化)有关的活动中去”这一核心观点基础上,对它在此观点基础上所提出的材料设计原则提出了质疑,并且这种质疑与建构主义的某些学习观相吻合:学习不是被动的信息吸收,而是主动地建构信息意义,并且,这种建构不能由他人代替。该研究可从一个全新一角度为中学理科教材的设计提供一定的理论指导和实验依据。
其他摘要Schema acquisition is one of the mechanisms of learning. How to design reasonable teaching material to promote schema acquisition is an important question that psychological researchers and educators both interested. Cognitive Load Theory indicates that: The cognitive resource of Human is limited, the organization and presentation of the learning material should avoid demanding the learner consume resource in actions that have nothing to do with schema acquisition. How can we do that? Sweller. J. et think: Increasing the operation cost of the learning material would make the students put more resource into the implementation of the operation, this kind of resource consuming has nothing to do with schema acquisition. So, in order to make the students put more resource into actions which relating to schema acquisition, we should decrease the operation cost of the learning material. But, the research results of O'Hara et indicate: In problem-solving of knowledge lean field, increasing the operation cost would make the college students invent more resource to plan and understanding actions. So, Increasing the operation cost would facilitate the schema acquisition. How operation cost will effect the Middle-School Students' (MSS) schema acquisition and resource distribution when they solve problems of knowledge lean/rich field? This is the main question this research want to make inquiry. IN this research, we use three experiments indicate: Increasing the operation cost of actions, the implementing action would be less and the planning action would be more. So, increasing the operation cost can promote the schema acquisition. We use "cost-benefit analysis" strategy to explain this result. This strategy means that: Human is rational, before doing one action, he will weigh the cost and the coming benefit of this action, if the coming benefit is higher than the cost, he will implement this action; if the cost is higher than the coming benefit, this action will be contained. On the one hand, this research further affirms the core opinion of the Cognitive Load Theory: Human's cognitive resource is limited, we should put the limited resource into actions which is related to the schema acquisition; On the other hand, for the learning material designing principle which is advanced by the Cognitive Load Theory, we raise our questions. Besides, the question we raised holds some identical views with the constructive learning opinion: Learning is not passive information absorption, but positively constructing the meaning of the information, besides, this kind of construction can't done by others. The result of this research can provide some theory guidance and experimental basis for the designing of the MSS's science teaching material from a complete new angle.
页数58
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4886
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
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张慧. 中学生问题解决中操作要求对资源分配的影响[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2000.
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