汉字形音义加工时间进程的事件相关电位(ERP)研究
其他题名An event-related potential study on the time course of orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing of Chinese characters
王春茂
学位类型博士
导师魏景汉
2000
学位授予单位中国科学院 心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院 心理研究所
学位专业生物心理学
关键词事件相关电位(ERP) 汉字认知 字形 语音 语义
摘要

本文以多导ERP系统地研究了汉字认知中形音义信息加工的时间进程,在语义通达是否需要语音中介这个长期争论的问题上,在理论概念方面有所补充与修整,支持并发展了汉字加工形音义重复与重叠的新概念。本研究所用的基于生理双分离方法的统计参数分布图是对传统的双分离方法和统计参数分布图方法的继承和发展。实验分为7项。实验一判断汉字字形是否为左右结构;实验二判断汉字的读音中是否包含韵母/a/;实验三判断所呈现的汉字字义是否为人造物;实验四判断所呈现的汉字的颜色;实验五判断所呈现的非字的颜色:实验六注视非字;实验七注视小十字。主要实验结果是:1.N240和P240:实验一、二、三、四(形、音、义、真字颜色判断)中皆在枕区和前额区出现了N240和P240成分,在实验五、六、七(非字颜色判断、注视非字、注视小十字)中则未出现。前四个实验和后三个实验的差别仅在于刺激不同:前者为真字,后者为非字或小十字。可见真字刺激与该二成分相关。这两个成分反映了汉字加工特有的过程,表明汉字加工在240毫秒左右达到了一次高 峰。2.基本视觉特征加工:实验一、二、四、六(形、音、真字颜色判断、注视非字)比实验七(注视小十字)增加了一个认知过程——基本视觉特征加工,相应的ERP变化为,从60毫秒左右开始出现多个脑区的ERP波幅增高。该现象说明基本视觉特征开始加工的时间可能为60毫秒左右。3.字形加工:实验一、二、三、四(形、音、义、真字颜色判断)与实验五(非字颜色判断)ERP在主加工字形部位枕区的差异从130毫秒左右开始。这是真字与非字类别差异的表现,表明字形加工的起始时间为130毫秒左右。实验一、二、三与实验四ERP在枕区的差异分别表现在210-250、230-240、190-250毫秒,表明此时字形得到了再一次的加工。这是语言任务与非语言任务差异的表现,比130毫秒左右开始的加工较为高级。由这些结果有理由推测,字形加工并非一次完成的,而且这种加工的反复并非简单的重复,而是一种更高级的加工。4.语音加工:实验二、三(音、义任务)的比较发现,从270毫秒开始,音任务在其主加工部位颞区和左侧前额区所诱发的ERP波幅大于义任务诱发的ERP。音、义任务都要经过基本视觉特征加工、字形加工等共同阶段,该差异反映了这些阶段完成后的语音加工。实验二与实验一(音任务与形任务) 在左侧额区的ERP差异开始于250毫秒。当音任务与更简单的真字颜色判断任务(实验四)相比较时,发现它们在左侧颞区和左侧额区的差异出现在220毫秒左右。由这些结果有理由推测,语音加工至少在220毫秒之前就已经开始了,其后字义加工与字形加工皆可唤起字音区继续加工一段时间。5.语义加工:实验三、二(义、音任务)的比较发现,从290毫秒开始,义任务在其主加工部位顶枕区所诱发的ERP波幅大于音任务所诱发的ERP。实验三与实验四(义任务与真字颜色判断)相比较发现的额顶区的差异出现在270毫秒左右。实验三与实验一(义任务与形任务)在额顶区的ERP差异开始于260毫秒。由这些结果有理由推测,语义加工至少在260毫秒之前就已经开始了,其后字音加工与字形加工皆可唤起字义区继续加工一段时间。6.音义加工的重叠:比较本研究的实验二、三(音、义任务)发现,在270-350毫秒期问,音任务在其主加工部位颞区和左侧前额区所诱发的ERP波幅大于义任务所诱发的ERP;而在290-360毫秒期间,义任务在其主加工部位额顶枕区所诱发的ERP波幅大于音任务所诱发的ERP。由这些结果有理由推测,语音加工早于语义加工,它们的加工存在部分重叠,即并行加工机制。7.语义加工需要部分语音信息:以实验一(形任务)为基线发现,从250毫秒开始,音任务和义任务皆使音的主加工部位左侧颞区和额区的ERP波幅增高。不同的是,从260毫秒开始,义任务在其主加工部位顶枕区的ERP波幅也增高。以实验四(真字颜色判断)为基线发现,从220毫秒开始,音任务和义任务皆使音的主加工部位左侧颞区和额区的ERP波幅增高;从270毫秒开始,义任务在其主加工部位顶枕区的ERP波幅增高。因此,有理由推测,语义加工开始前可能需要某些语音加工信息。根据上述实验结果,在本实验条件下可得如下结论:1.基本视觉特征加工约从60毫秒开始;2.字形加工约从130毫秒开始,在240毫秒左右出现了反复加工。这种加工的反复并非简单的重复,而是一种更高级的加工;3.语音加工先于语义加工出现,但它们又有一段重叠的时间;4.语义加工开始前可能需要某些语音加工信息;5.语义通达与语音的关系并不是一个简单的语音是否中介的问题。汉字形音义加工具有重复、彼此重叠、交叉等现象,其关系是极为错综复杂的。

其他摘要

The time-courses of orthographic, phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters were investigated systematically with multi-channel event-related potentials (ERPs). New evidences concerning whether phonology or semantics is processed first and whether phonology mediates semantic access were obtained, supporting and developing the new concept of repetition, overlapping, and alternating processing in Chinese character recognition. Statistic parameter mapping based on physiological double dissociation has been developed. Seven experiments were conducted: I) deciding which type of structure, left-right or non-left-right, the character displayed on the screen was; 2) deciding whether or not there was a vowel/a/in the pronunciation of the character; 3) deciding which classification, natural object or non-natural object, the character was; 4) deciding which color, red or green, the character was; 5) deciding which color, red or green, the non-character was; 6) fixing on the non-character; 7) fixing on the crosslet. The main results are: 1. N240 and P240:N240 and P240 localized at occipital and prefrontal respectively were found in experiments 1, 2, 3, and 4, but not in experiments 5, 6, or 7. The difference between the former 4 and the latter 3 experiments was only their stimuli: the former's were true Chinese characters while the latter's were non-characters or crosslet. Thus Chinese characters were related to these two components, which reflected unique processing of Chinese characters peaking at about 240 msec. 2. Basic visual feature analysis: In comparison with experiment 7 there was a common cognitive process in experiments 1, 2, 4, and 6 - basic visual feature analysis. The corresponding ERP amplitude increase in most sites started from about 60 msec. 3. Orthography: The ERP differences located at the main processing area of orthography (occipital) between experiments 1, 2, 3, 4 and experiment 5 started from about 130 msec. This was the category difference between Chinese characters and non-characters, which revealed that orthographic processing started from about 130 msec. The ERP differences between the experiments 1, 2, 3 and the experiment 4 occurred in 210-250, 230-240, and 190-250 msec respectively, suggesting orthography was processed again. These were the differences between language and non-language tasks, which revealed a higher level processing than that in the above mentioned 130 msec. All the phenomena imply that the orthographic processing does not finished in one time of processing; the second time of processing is not a simple repetition, but a higher level one. 4. Phonology: The ERPs of experiment 2 (phonological task) were significantly stronger than those of experiment 3 (semantic task) at the main processing areas of phonology (temporal and left prefrontal) starting from about 270 msec, which revealed phonologic processing. The ERP differences at left frontal between experiment 2 and experiment 1 (orthographic task) started from about 250 msec. When comparing phonological task with experiment 4 (character color decision), the ERP differences at left temporal and prefrontal started from about 220 msec. Thus phonological processing may start before 220 msec. 5. Semantic: The ERPs of experiment 3 (semantic task) were significantly stronger than those of experiment 2 (phonological task) at the main processing areas of semantics (parietal and occipital) starting from about 290 msec, which revealed semantic processing. The ERP differences at these areas between experiment 3 and experiment 4 (character color decision) started from about 270 msec. The ERP differences between experiment 3 and experiment 1 (orthographic task) started from about 260 msec. Thus semantic processing may start before 260 msec. 6. Overlapping of phonological and semantic processing: From about 270 to 350 msec, the ERPs of experiment 2 (phonological task) were significantly larger than those of experiment 3 (semantic task) at the main processing areas of phonology (temporal and left prefrontal); while from about 290-360 msec, the ERPs of experiment 3 were significantly larger than those of experiment 2 at the main processing areas of semantics (frontal, parietal, and occipital). Thus phonological processing may start earlier than semantic and their time-courses may alternate, which reveals parallel processing. 7. Semantic processing needs part phonology: When experiment 1 (orthographic task) served as baseline, the ERPs of experiment 2 and 3 (phonological and semantic tasks) significantly increased at the main processing areas of phonology (left temporal and frontal) starting from about 250 msec. The ERPs of experiment 3, besides, increased significantly at the main processing areas of semantics (parietal and frontal) starting from about 260 msec. When experiment 4 (character color decision) served as baseline, the ERPs of experiment 2 and 3 significantly increased at phonological areas (left temporal and frontal) starting from about 220 msec. The ERPs of experiment 3, similarly, increased significantly at semantic areas (parietal and frontal) starting from about270 msec. Hence, before semantic processing, a part of phonological information may be required. The conclusion could be got from above results in the present experimental conditions: 1. The basic visual feature processing starts from about 60 msec; 2. Orthographic processing starts from about 130 msec, and repeats at about 240 msec. The second processing is not simple repetition of the first one, but a higher level processing; 3. Phonological processing begins earlier than semantic, and their time-courses overlap; 4. Before semantic processing, a part of phonological information may be required; 5. The repetition, overlapping, and alternating of the orthographic, phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters could exist in cognition. Thus the problem of whether phonology mediates semantics access is not a simple, but a complicated issue.

页数66
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4902
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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王春茂. 汉字形音义加工时间进程的事件相关电位(ERP)研究[D]. 中国科学院 心理研究所. 中国科学院 心理研究所,2000.
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