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工作社会规范观念的心理学研究与跨文化比较
王二平
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor徐联仓
1991
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Discipline心理学
Abstract

工作意义国际研究组指出,工作不仅是满足个体经济需要的手段,还是个体社会交往的主要途径和场所,是与社会保持联系的纽带。工作在维持个体精神健康,满足其他社会性需要方面也有重要的作用。工作意义的跨文化比较研究是近年来规模和影响最大的国际合作研究之一。本研究参加了其正在进行的第二轮研究。工作社会规范观念是工作意义国际研究组提出的一个新的重要的理论范畴。1、工作社会规范观念的跨文比较 通过与他国的比较,我国职工的工作社会规范观念属于义务定向型,即义务观念是分高于国际平均水平,权利观念得分低于国际平均水平。2、中国职工的工作社会规范观念类型分析 运用多元聚类分析和多元判别分析方法将两种工作社会规范观念联系起来分析,概括出我国职工工作社会规范观念的四种类型。3、工作社会规范观念测量工具的改进 为使对工作社会规范观念的测能反映两种观念相互联系相互制约的关系,并控制测量中社会称许性的影响,本研究采用了迫选法量表形式改进测量工具。4、工作社会规范观念的汇编栅格分析 本研究尝试应用汇编栅格分析方法来分析各种工作社会规范观念类型职工的认知结构特点。5、工作社会规范观念与工作行为关系的模拟实验 本研究用模拟实验方法对工作社会规范观念与完成工作任务行为的关系进行了验证。6、我国宣传中的工作社会规范观念内容分析 在搜集编制工作社会规范观念迫选法量表素材时发现,我国宣传中有关工作权利观念的内容甚少。我国宣传的重心一直偏向于工作义务规范观念。其发展线索是,从建国初期的轻度不平衡,逐步加剧到“文革”期间的极度不平衡,党的十一届三中全会后又转变轻度的不平衡。值得注意的是,这种不平衡有重新加剧的趋势。本研究根据以上研究结果提出一个工作社会规范观念一维连续体的理论模型:工作社会规范观念可看作从极端权利定向到极端义务定向的连续体,工作的义务观念和权利观念是工作社会规范观念的两种成分。任一个体的工作社会规范观念都处理这个连续体中的某一水平,此水平可确定两种规范观念成分的比例。该模型还概括了影响工作社会规范观念的各种社会文化环境因素和个人因素,以及工作社会规范观念对工作行为和对未来工作及与社会和组织的关系的期望和评价的影响。本研究还提出一个数学模型,以说明某些社会文化环境因素影响造 成的社会称许性与真实工作社会规范观念间的偏差。工作社会规范观念研究对我国的管理至少有两方面的意义:提供认识工作中职工与国家和集体间关系的新的理论角度;提供了解和调整职工与国家和集体间关系的新途径。

Other Abstract

Data on meaning of working (MOW) were collected from 905 respondents in Beijing area through a stratified sampling procedure of the questionnaire used in the restudy of meaning of working (which is still on going, adapted for using in China). Some parts of the factor structure obtained in this study are similar to what found by the MOW International Research Team (1987). Detailed analysis and cross-cultural comparisons were concentrated on the most similar parts societal norms about working (SNW). T-scores of the obligation norm (ON) and entitlement norm (EN) of Chinese were calculated based on the reaction frequencies of relevant items provided by the MOW International Research Team and shown as follows. The results reveal the obligation orientation characteristic of Chinese respondents. And more, 4 SNW patterns of Chinese respondents were obtained through multivariate cluster analysis and multivariate discrimination analysis and shown as follows. The influences of antecedent variables on SNW and the consequences of SNW were analyzed. Two questions were raised from these analyses: 1) The present measurements of SNW are not able to reflect the nature of the relation and dependency between ON and EN and are not free from social desirability; 2) the relationship between SNW and actual working behaviors need to be tested while the relationship between SNW and several work intentions was confirmed. A forced-choice scale of SNW was designed to overcome the shortcomes of the original scale. This scale includes 30 items. Each item is composed of a ON statement and a EN statement with similar values of social desirability. A repertory grids test was used to exam the constructure validity and to analyze the differences of cognitive structures of the 4 SNW patterns. The results indicated that the new scale had a good discrimination power. An experiment was designed to test the relationship of SNW and the actual work behaviors of the respondents. The respondents' action in completing a task was chosen as working behavior index. 4 hypotheses were tested: 1) higher obligation orientation subjects are more likely to complete tasks no matter overtime; 2) scheduled tasks are more likely to be completed no matter overtime; 3) the obligation norm about working is positively correlated with general obligation norms; and, 4) external motivtors will enhance lower obligation orientation subjects' working motivation more than higher obligation orientation subjects' the results verified hypothesis 1 and 3, but didn't support hypothesis 2 and 4 these findings will have great implication in administrating.

Pages133
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4974
Collection中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王二平. 工作社会规范观念的心理学研究与跨文化比较[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1991.
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