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内源性和外源性视觉选择性注意的研究
Alternative TitleStudies on Endogenous and Exogenous Visual Selective Attention
杨华海
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张侃
1997
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline工业心理学
Keyword视觉选择性注意 跨感觉通道 控制加工 自动加工
Other Abstract

       本项工作利用一种综合视觉搜索任务和空间线索任务的实验模式,研究内源性和外源性视觉选择性注意的时空特征和相互关系。中央符号线索(出现在注视点的指向不同方向的箭头)和外周突现线索(外周目标附近突然出现而后又消失的亮块)以一定的有效度提示目标可能出现的位置。这两种线索被认为分别激活内源性选择性注意和外源性选择注意(如Posner, 1980; Jonides, 1981)。实验一比较T听觉符号线索(不同音调的声音)和视觉符号线索引导视觉空间选择性注意的能力,发现,SOA(线索与目标的时间间隔)较短时,听觉线索不能引导注意,反而延缓反应时,而视觉线索在最短的SOA(100毫秒)时就能引导注意。在长的SOA,听觉线索也能引导注意,但不如视觉线索有效。支持存在感觉通道之上的注意机制假说,但二者引导注意的机制仍有所不同。实验二排除意识作用考察外周突现刺激能否自动化地吸引注意,并考察注意转移的时空特征。结果表明,外周突现刺激能够不随意地吸引注意,这种注意转移以一种类似于探照灯的方式在视觉空间移动,移动一度视角大约需要25毫秒。实验三在中央符号线索己经引导注意集中到一个地点的情况下,考察外周突现刺激引导注意的能力,发现,在注意己经集中到一个与突现刺激不一致的地点时,突现刺激不能吸引注意,但当注意集中地点与突现刺激一致时,突现对反应有加速作用。

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To Study the mechanisms underling orienting of attention in visual space, subjects were given advance cues' indicating the probable locations of targets that they had to localize and discriminate.  Direct peripheral cues and symbolic central cues are believed to activate different exogenous and endogenous modes of orienting( e.g. Posner, 1980; Jonides, 1981).  To further investigate the possibility of auditory symbolic cues to activate endogenous visual selective attention, Experiment  1 compared the visual symbolic cues( an arrow at the fixation point indicating a probable peripheral target)with auditory symbolic cues( one of three pure sounds with different pitches),and showed that valid auditory cues come with inhibition rather than facilitation at SOA shorter than SOOms while valid visual cues show significant facilitation even at the shortest SOA(100ms).  At longer SOA, both cue show facilitation.  It was suggested there existed a super-modal mechanism, but the visual and sound cues have important difference in activate visual selective activities.  Experiment 2 tested the effect of a peripheral cue( brightening of one of three dots with 4“eccentricities)on the discrimination of targets with different eccentricities( 2’,., 0.,5 0  and 6“).The results showed that the peripheral onset capture attention involuntarily and the spatial- temporal character is more consistent with the hypothesis of a spotlight model of attention shift than that of a zoom-lens model or a spatial gradient model.  The attention spotlight needs 25 ms to move 1 visual degree.  EXperiment 3 presented the peripheral onset following either visual or sound symbolic cues, and showed that a peripheral onset could not capture attention when attention was focused on locations incompatible with the onset location.  When the peripheral onset was consistent with the cue, facilitation in reaction time was found.  The difference between visual and sound cues was also found.

Subject Area心理学
Pages36
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/5048
Collection中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨华海. 内源性和外源性视觉选择性注意的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院心理研究所,1997.
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