Institutional Repository, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
|其他题名||Monitoring of Multiple Memory Systems: Monitoring of Episode Memory and The Basis of FOK and Semantic Memory|
|关键词||多重记忆系统 FOK判断的线索熟悉性假说 情节记忆 语义记忆|
元记忆研究是记忆心理学的重要课题之一，它涉及人们对自身的记忆的监测与控制.对多重记忆系统问题的认识始自80年代，自那时以来，人们在这个方面积累了大量的实验和理论资料.但是，对于这二者之间的关系，至今尚缺乏系统的理论说明.本研究围绕元记忆对多重记忆系统的监测，具体研究了两个问题:第一个问题涉及FOK(feeling of knowning)的线索熟悉性假说;第二个问题涉及FOK与回忆性体验之间的关系.
Metamemory is one of the significant topic in memory study; that concernsmonitoring and control of one's own knowledge. The recognition of multiple memory systems begins in the early 1980's, and a substantial body of experimental data and theoretical material has accumulated from that time. However, the relation between them is not yet clear. This study is structured around two points concerning monitoring of multiple memory systems. One point is on the cue-familiarity heuristic of FOK, the other is on the relation between FOK and recollective experience.
The first group of experiment (exl-4) examine the cue-familiarity theory of FOK. There are two main points of view about the basis of FOK. One is trace-access view of FOK which emphasis the role of memory target (the answer) and holds that the FOK represents the output of a specialized monitoring mechanism that can directly detect the presence of the target's trace in memory. The other is inference-based views of FOK, which emphasis the importance of memory pointer (the cue or question) and holds that FOK is based on an inferential process in which certain cues are used consciously or unconsciously. Because the extreme version of the latter views denies the validity of monitoring of memory systems by metamemory, We examine it specifically .The experiments were carried out on the base of Metcalfe's study (Metcalfe, et a1.,1993) which was considered as the evidence in support of cue-familiarity hypothesis. The result of our experiments showed that，were 1 x 2design (not 1 x 4 design in Metcalfe's study) adopted，a critical difference that can't be attributed to cue familiarity can be observed. Further experiments proved that the FKJs and cue-familiarity judgements(CFJs) is two different kinds of judgement，they have different response patterns under the same stimulus pattern. The resuit implies that, it is not only the c-ue familiarity or target accessibility but also the cue-target association that underlies the judgment of FOK.
The second group of study investigate directly the relation between FOK and multiple memory systems. Specifically, we take the R-response as the index of episode memory, the K-response as the index of semantic memory, and the cued stem completion as the index of PRS. The results indicated that the amount of FOK(MFOK) of R response items is significantly higher than that of K response items or cued stem completion items. This result is considered as the monitoring pattern experiments showed that the pattern the level of processing, the allocation Is of multiple memory systems. Further fairly stable, it did not changed with of study time and the training of FOK judgements; that implies the feature of memory trace and the strategy subjects adopte can not alter the metamemory monitoring pattern. In fact, this pattern will not change unless the memory pointer (the cue) do not appeared in the criterion test, so the greater MFOK of R-response originated from target's memory system feature, but from the associations' memory system feature.
|罗劲. 元记忆对多重记忆系统的监测[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1997.|