元记忆对多重记忆系统的监测
其他题名Monitoring of Multiple Memory Systems: Monitoring of Episode Memory and The Basis of FOK and Semantic Memory
罗劲
学位类型博士
导师林仲贤
1997
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点中国科学院心理研究所
学位专业普通心理学
关键词多重记忆系统 FOK判断的线索熟悉性假说 情节记忆 语义记忆
摘要

 元记忆研究是记忆心理学的重要课题之一,它涉及人们对自身的记忆的监测与控制.对多重记忆系统问题的认识始自80年代,自那时以来,人们在这个方面积累了大量的实验和理论资料.但是,对于这二者之间的关系,至今尚缺乏系统的理论说明.本研究围绕元记忆对多重记忆系统的监测,具体研究了两个问题:第一个问题涉及FOK(feeling of knowning)的线索熟悉性假说;第二个问题涉及FOK与回忆性体验之间的关系.
关于FOK产生的基础,有两种主要的观点,一种观点强调记忆目标(即答案)的作用,认为FOK是由某种特定的监控机制通过对未能成功再现的记忆目标的直接探察而产生的;另一种观点则强调记忆线索(即问题)的作用,认为FOK是基于某种推导过程而产生的,这种推导过程主要是对与线索有关的记忆信息的利用.关于FOK的线索熟悉性假说是后一种观点的代表性理论之一这种理论的极端形式否认了FOK对于未能成功再现的记忆项目具有监测作用的可能性,因而成为我们首先必需加以探讨的对象.具体的
研究在Metcalfe等人(1993)的研究基础上进行,她们的工作是支持FOK的线索熟悉性假说的证据之一我们在研究中发现,如果采用1X2设计而不是原来的1X4设计并且增大处理间的对比力度的话,就可以观察到某些原来不能被观察到的关键性差异,而这些差异是FOK的线索熟悉性假说所不能解释的.进一步的研究证实:FOK判断与线索熟悉性判断(CFJs)具有不同的性质,它们会在相同的刺激模式之下表现出不同的反应模式.第一部分的研究结果提示我们,FOK判断的决定因素不仅在于线索的熟悉性或目标的可获得性,而且也在于线索一目标之间的联结强度.
    第二部分的研究讨论FOK与多重记忆系统的关系,具体地,以R反应为情节记忆的指标,以K反应为语义记忆的指标,以补笔测验为内隐记忆或PRA的指标.研究的结果表明:R项目的FOK的量(MFOK)明显地高于K项目与成功补笔项目,说明FOK受情节记忆系统的支持多于受其它两者的支持.进一步的分析表明,FOK对多重记忆系统的这种监测模式具有相对的稳定性,它不随加工的时间,加工的深度以及元记忆判断训练等因素的影响,说明记忆痕的性质与判断的策略都不会改变元记忆的监测模式.事实上,这种模式只有当在最后的标准测验中没有线索项出现的情况下,才会发生改变,这说明:是线索一目标联结体的记忆系统特征,而不是目标项目本身的记忆系统特征在影响着FOK判断.

其他摘要

  Metamemory is one of the significant topic in memory study; that concernsmonitoring and control of one's own knowledge. The recognition of multiple memory systems begins in the early 1980's, and a substantial body of experimental data and theoretical material has accumulated from that time. However, the relation between them is not yet clear. This study is structured around two points concerning monitoring of multiple memory systems. One point is on the cue-familiarity heuristic of FOK, the other is on the relation between FOK and recollective experience.

 The first group of experiment (exl-4) examine the cue-familiarity theory of FOK. There are two main points of view about the basis of FOK. One is trace-access view of FOK which emphasis the role of memory target (the answer) and holds that the FOK represents the output of a specialized monitoring mechanism that can directly detect the presence of the target's trace in memory. The other is inference-based views of FOK, which emphasis the importance of memory pointer (the cue or question) and holds that FOK is based on an inferential process in which certain cues are used consciously or unconsciously. Because the extreme version of the latter views denies the validity of monitoring of memory systems by metamemory, We examine it specifically .The experiments were carried out on the base of Metcalfe's study (Metcalfe, et a1.,1993) which was considered as the evidence in support of cue-familiarity hypothesis. The result of our experiments showed that,were 1 x 2design (not 1 x 4 design in Metcalfe's study) adopted,a critical difference that can't  be  attributed  to  cue familiarity  can  be  observed.  Further experiments proved that the FKJs and cue-familiarity judgements(CFJs) is two different kinds of judgement,they have different response patterns under the same stimulus pattern. The resuit implies that, it is not only the c-ue familiarity or target accessibility but also the cue-target association that underlies the judgment of FOK.

  The second group of study investigate directly the relation between FOK and multiple memory systems. Specifically, we take the R-response as the index of episode memory, the K-response as the index of semantic memory, and the cued stem completion as the index of PRS. The results indicated that the amount of FOK(MFOK) of R response items is significantly higher than that of K response items or cued stem completion items. This result is considered as the monitoring pattern experiments showed that the pattern the level of processing, the allocation Is of multiple memory systems. Further fairly stable, it did not changed with of study time and the training of FOK judgements; that implies the feature of memory trace and the strategy subjects adopte can not alter the metamemory monitoring pattern. In fact, this pattern will not change unless the memory pointer (the cue) do not appeared in the criterion test, so the greater MFOK of R-response originated from target's memory system feature, but from the associations' memory system feature.
 

页数84
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/5050
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
罗劲. 元记忆对多重记忆系统的监测[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,1997.
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