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Categorical organization in free recall across culture and age
Gutchess, Angela H.; Yoon, Carolyn; Luo, Ting; Feinberg, Fred; Hedden, Trey; Jing, Qicheng; Nisbett, Richard E.; Park, Denise C.; A. H. Gutchess
2006
Source PublicationGERONTOLOGY
ISSN0304-324X
SubtypeArticle
Volume52Issue:5Pages:314-323
AbstractBackground: Cross-cultural differences in cognition suggest that Westerners use categories more than Easterners, but these differences have only been investigated in young, adults. Objective: The contributions of cognitive resource and the extent of cultural exposure are explored for free recall by investigating cross-cultural differences in categorical organization in younger and older adults. Cultural differences in the use of categories should be larger for elderly than young because categorization is a well-practiced strategy for Westerners, but age-related cognitive resource limitations may make the strategy difficult for elderly Easterners to implement. Therefore, we expect that cultural differences in categorization will be magnified in elderly adults relative to younger adults, with Americans categorizing more than Chinese. Methods: Across two studies, 112 young and 112 elderly drawn from two cultures (American and Chinese) encoded words presented in their native language. One word list contained categorically-unrelated words and the other, categorically-related words; both lists were presented in the participants' native language. In experiment 1, the words were strong category associates, and in experiment 2, the words were weak category associates. Participants recalled all the words they could remember, and the number of words recalled and degree of clustering by category were analyzed. Results: As predicted, cultural differences emerged for the elderly, with East-Asians using categories less than Americans during recall of highly-associated category exemplars (experiment 1). For recall of low-associate exemplars, East-Asians overall categorized less than Americans (experiment 2). Surprisingly, these differences in the use of categories did not lead to cultural differences in the number of words recalled. The expected effects of age were apparent with elderly recalling less than young, but in contrast to previous studies, elderly also categorized less than young. Conclusion: These studies provide support for the notion that cultural differences in categorical organization are larger for elderly adults than young, although culture did not impact the amount recalled. These data suggest that culture and age interact to influence cognition.; Background: Cross-cultural differences in cognition suggest that Westerners use categories more than Easterners, but these differences have only been investigated in young, adults. Objective: The contributions of cognitive resource and the extent of cultural exposure are explored for free recall by investigating cross-cultural differences in categorical organization in younger and older adults. Cultural differences in the use of categories should be larger for elderly than young because categorization is a well-practiced strategy for Westerners, but age-related cognitive resource limitations may make the strategy difficult for elderly Easterners to implement. Therefore, we expect that cultural differences in categorization will be magnified in elderly adults relative to younger adults, with Americans categorizing more than Chinese. Methods: Across two studies, 112 young and 112 elderly drawn from two cultures (American and Chinese) encoded words presented in their native language. One word list contained categorically-unrelated words and the other, categorically-related words; both lists were presented in the participants' native language. In experiment 1, the words were strong category associates, and in experiment 2, the words were weak category associates. Participants recalled all the words they could remember, and the number of words recalled and degree of clustering by category were analyzed. Results: As predicted, cultural differences emerged for the elderly, with East-Asians using categories less than Americans during recall of highly-associated category exemplars (experiment 1). For recall of low-associate exemplars, East-Asians overall categorized less than Americans (experiment 2). Surprisingly, these differences in the use of categories did not lead to cultural differences in the number of words recalled. The expected effects of age were apparent with elderly recalling less than young, but in contrast to previous studies, elderly also categorized less than young. Conclusion: These studies provide support for the notion that cultural differences in categorical organization are larger for elderly adults than young, although culture did not impact the amount recalled. These data suggest that culture and age interact to influence cognition.
Keywordculture aging memory recall categorization cognition
Subject Area认知心理学
Indexed BySCI ; SSCI
Language英语
WOS IDWOS:000240678500008
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/5237
Collection中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
Corresponding AuthorA. H. Gutchess
Affiliation1.Univ Michigan, Dept Psychol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
2.Univ Michigan, Ross Sch Business, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Psychol, Beijing, Peoples R China
4.Stanford Univ, Dept Psychol, Stanford, CA 94305 USA
5.Univ Illinois, Beckman Inst, Urbana, IL 61801 USA
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Gutchess, Angela H.,Yoon, Carolyn,Luo, Ting,et al. Categorical organization in free recall across culture and age[J]. GERONTOLOGY,2006,52(5):314-323.
APA Gutchess, Angela H..,Yoon, Carolyn.,Luo, Ting.,Feinberg, Fred.,Hedden, Trey.,...&A. H. Gutchess.(2006).Categorical organization in free recall across culture and age.GERONTOLOGY,52(5),314-323.
MLA Gutchess, Angela H.,et al."Categorical organization in free recall across culture and age".GERONTOLOGY 52.5(2006):314-323.
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