Categorical organization in free recall across culture and age
Gutchess, Angela H.; Yoon, Carolyn; Luo, Ting; Feinberg, Fred; Hedden, Trey; Jing, Qicheng; Nisbett, Richard E.; Park, Denise C.; A. H. Gutchess
2006
发表期刊GERONTOLOGY
ISSN0304-324X
文章类型Article
卷号52期号:5页码:314-323
摘要Background: Cross-cultural differences in cognition suggest that Westerners use categories more than Easterners, but these differences have only been investigated in young, adults. Objective: The contributions of cognitive resource and the extent of cultural exposure are explored for free recall by investigating cross-cultural differences in categorical organization in younger and older adults. Cultural differences in the use of categories should be larger for elderly than young because categorization is a well-practiced strategy for Westerners, but age-related cognitive resource limitations may make the strategy difficult for elderly Easterners to implement. Therefore, we expect that cultural differences in categorization will be magnified in elderly adults relative to younger adults, with Americans categorizing more than Chinese. Methods: Across two studies, 112 young and 112 elderly drawn from two cultures (American and Chinese) encoded words presented in their native language. One word list contained categorically-unrelated words and the other, categorically-related words; both lists were presented in the participants' native language. In experiment 1, the words were strong category associates, and in experiment 2, the words were weak category associates. Participants recalled all the words they could remember, and the number of words recalled and degree of clustering by category were analyzed. Results: As predicted, cultural differences emerged for the elderly, with East-Asians using categories less than Americans during recall of highly-associated category exemplars (experiment 1). For recall of low-associate exemplars, East-Asians overall categorized less than Americans (experiment 2). Surprisingly, these differences in the use of categories did not lead to cultural differences in the number of words recalled. The expected effects of age were apparent with elderly recalling less than young, but in contrast to previous studies, elderly also categorized less than young. Conclusion: These studies provide support for the notion that cultural differences in categorical organization are larger for elderly adults than young, although culture did not impact the amount recalled. These data suggest that culture and age interact to influence cognition.; Background: Cross-cultural differences in cognition suggest that Westerners use categories more than Easterners, but these differences have only been investigated in young, adults. Objective: The contributions of cognitive resource and the extent of cultural exposure are explored for free recall by investigating cross-cultural differences in categorical organization in younger and older adults. Cultural differences in the use of categories should be larger for elderly than young because categorization is a well-practiced strategy for Westerners, but age-related cognitive resource limitations may make the strategy difficult for elderly Easterners to implement. Therefore, we expect that cultural differences in categorization will be magnified in elderly adults relative to younger adults, with Americans categorizing more than Chinese. Methods: Across two studies, 112 young and 112 elderly drawn from two cultures (American and Chinese) encoded words presented in their native language. One word list contained categorically-unrelated words and the other, categorically-related words; both lists were presented in the participants' native language. In experiment 1, the words were strong category associates, and in experiment 2, the words were weak category associates. Participants recalled all the words they could remember, and the number of words recalled and degree of clustering by category were analyzed. Results: As predicted, cultural differences emerged for the elderly, with East-Asians using categories less than Americans during recall of highly-associated category exemplars (experiment 1). For recall of low-associate exemplars, East-Asians overall categorized less than Americans (experiment 2). Surprisingly, these differences in the use of categories did not lead to cultural differences in the number of words recalled. The expected effects of age were apparent with elderly recalling less than young, but in contrast to previous studies, elderly also categorized less than young. Conclusion: These studies provide support for the notion that cultural differences in categorical organization are larger for elderly adults than young, although culture did not impact the amount recalled. These data suggest that culture and age interact to influence cognition.
关键词culture aging memory recall categorization cognition
学科领域认知心理学
收录类别SCI ; SSCI
语种英语
WOS记录号WOS:000240678500008
引用统计
被引频次:18[WOS]   [WOS记录]     [WOS相关记录]
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/5237
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
通讯作者A. H. Gutchess
作者单位1.Univ Michigan, Dept Psychol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
2.Univ Michigan, Ross Sch Business, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Psychol, Beijing, Peoples R China
4.Stanford Univ, Dept Psychol, Stanford, CA 94305 USA
5.Univ Illinois, Beckman Inst, Urbana, IL 61801 USA
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Gutchess, Angela H.,Yoon, Carolyn,Luo, Ting,et al. Categorical organization in free recall across culture and age[J]. GERONTOLOGY,2006,52(5):314-323.
APA Gutchess, Angela H..,Yoon, Carolyn.,Luo, Ting.,Feinberg, Fred.,Hedden, Trey.,...&A. H. Gutchess.(2006).Categorical organization in free recall across culture and age.GERONTOLOGY,52(5),314-323.
MLA Gutchess, Angela H.,et al."Categorical organization in free recall across culture and age".GERONTOLOGY 52.5(2006):314-323.
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