9-13岁不同智力水平儿童的信息加工速度及其年龄差异的研究
其他题名The Speed of Information Processing of 9-13 Years old different intelligence level Children and Developmental Change With Age
周丹
学位类型硕士
导师施建农
2005-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业发展与教育心理学
关键词信息加工速度 智力 超常儿童 发展
其他摘要信息加工速度是衡量心理能力及个体心理发展水平的重要指标。本研究选取913岁的童年中期的儿童为被试,从信息加工速度的三个层面考虑,选取了检测时,选择反应时和抽象匹配三项不同类型的认知任务,对不同智力水平的儿童信息加工速度的发展及其年龄差异进行了系统的考察。研究共分为两个部分,研究一选取了91名智力超常和93名常态儿童,目的是考察智力与信息加工速度的关系;研究二以949-13岁加速教育的智力超常儿童和93名常规教育的智力超常儿童为研究对象,对两组儿童的信息加工速度的发展及差异进行了比较,考察教育经验对信息加工速度的影响,探讨了儿童信息加工速度发展的理论问题。研究结果发现:1.信息加工速度多层次任务水平的年龄发展趋势是类似的,即感觉运动速度和知觉速度都随着年龄的增长速度加快。2.在9~13岁之间,不同智力水平的儿童信息加工速度具有基本一致的发展趋势,具体表现为随着年龄的增长,速度明显加快。39~13岁之间,超常儿童在本研究所涉及的各项任务中的反应速度明显快于常态儿童,且差异保持稳定。4不同智力水平的儿童信息加工速度的差异受任务类型和任务条件变化的影响。检测时与反应时的任务中,发展趋势是基本一致的,在抽象匹配任务中,随着任务复杂程度的提高,超常与常态儿童之间的差异增大,超常儿童比常态儿童在信息加工速度上表现出更多的优势。5不同教育水平的超常儿童的信息加工速度具有基本一致的发展趋势,并且处于加速教育的超常儿童表现优于常规教育的超常儿童。6.结果部分的支持了经验说,但是并不是体现在信息加工速度的每一个层次上,知识经验和环境因素对超常儿童信息加工速度发展有重要的作用,但对检测时发展的影响较小,而对一般知觉速度影响较大。; Speed of information processing (SIP) is a key index of mental ability. It is also a key index of a person’s mental development. The research on the SIP is an important project in the field of the life-span developmental study. Three cognitive tasks including linear Inspection Time, Choice Reaction and Abstract Matching were executed which were selected according the level of speed of information processing. The purpose is to explore the effect of intelligence level and school experience on speed of information processing of 9-13 Years old Children. The study has two parts. In the present study1, 91 supernormal children (of three grades, aged from 9- to 13- year old) were compares with 93 intellectually normal children on three tasks above, aiming to explore the effect of intelligence on the speed of information processing development. In the present study2, 94 intellectually supernormal children who are in the accelerated education (of three higher grades, aged from 9- to 13- year old) were compares with 93 intellectually supernormal children who are in the normal education (of three lower grades, aged from 9- to 13- year old) on the same tasks. The purpose is to explore the effect of school experience on the speed of information processing development and the mechanism of developmental change in information processing stages.The results indicated that:1) The development of different levels of SIP is nearly the same trends. The sensorimotor speed and perceptual speed have sped up with the age.2) The development of the 9- to 13-years old supernormal and normal children’s SIP are nearly the same trends. The reaction time got shorter and the accuracy increased with the age.3) The supernormal group performed better than the normal group either by shorter RT or greater accuracy in the experimental tasks in each ages and the differences are stable. 4) The SIP differences between two groups is associated with the tasks’ complexity. In the inspection time task and the reaction time tasks, the result is similar; in the abstract matching task, the difference gets larger when the tasks were more complex and the supernormal group performed better in the complex tasks. 5) The SIP’s development of the 9- to 13-years old supernormal children both in accelerated and normal education are nearly the same trends. The supernormal Ss in the accelerated education perform better than those with the same age and same intelligence in the normal education either by shorter RT or greater accuracy. 6) The results partly support “experience theory” which was one of explanation to the the mechanism of developmental change in information processing. But the result from the inspection time task and the reaction time task were dissimilar. The school experience and educational environment play an important role in the development of supernormal children’s SIP. And the effect on the inspection time task (sensorimotor speed) was less than on the perceptual speed.
学科领域发展心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/7335
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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周丹. 9-13岁不同智力水平儿童的信息加工速度及其年龄差异的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2005.
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