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父母抑郁与青少年抑郁的关系——自上而下的代际传递还是自下而上的反作用?
其他题名The Relationship between Parental Depression and Adolescent Depression: who affects whom?
侯金芹
学位类型博士
导师张建新 ; 陈祉妍
2013-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词抑郁 代际传递 反作用 教养方式 中介作用
摘要抑郁,作为影响人类健康的第二大杀手,引起了世界卫生组织的广泛关注, 学者们从多个角度探查其成因,研究抑郁的家族聚集性是热点之一。无论是临床诊断的抑郁症患者还是具有抑郁情绪的普通人群,研究均发现父母抑郁与青少年抑郁之间的关系显著。然而,已有的绝大部分研究均聚焦于父母抑郁对青少年抑郁的影响,探查自上而下的代际传递,鲜有研究探讨青少年抑郁对父母抑郁的反作用。基于已有研究证实抑郁在控制了遗传因素的影响之后,很大程度上受到环境因素的影响,本研究从系统生态学理论和交互作用模型的角度同时探查父母抑郁对青少年抑郁自上而下的影响以及青少年抑郁对父母抑郁自下而上的反作用,并初步考察两者相互影响的机制,即教养方式在其中的中介作用。本研究数据来于全国青少年心理健康状况调查项目(AMHC)的三轮追踪调查,采用流调中心抑郁量表 (CES-D)来测量青少年和父亲/母亲的抑郁,用美国爱荷华州家庭研究项目组的教养方式问卷测量父亲/母亲积极卷入和严厉不一致的教养方式。785名男生和859 名女生参加了三轮的追踪研究,初始测量阶段的年龄范围为10-16 岁,平均年龄分别是12.99±1.84 和12.96±1.87 岁。研究一意在分性别考察中国青少年抑郁的发展轨迹,结果发现,中国青少年的抑郁在整个青春期呈现线性的增长趋势,为研究二和研究三的统计分析奠定了基础。研究二采用交叉滞后模型考察父亲/母亲抑郁与青少年抑郁之间的双向关系,并分析性别的调节作用。结果发现,母亲抑郁与青少年抑郁之间的双向作用关系显著,但青少年抑郁对母亲抑郁的影响更强。父亲抑郁对青少年抑郁的预测效力不显著,但青少年抑郁对父亲抑郁自下而上的影响作用显著。研究三在研究二的基础上将父亲/母亲的教养方式纳入模型,考察其在父亲/母亲抑郁与青少年抑郁关系间的中介作用。结果发现,积极卷入的教养方式有效介导了青少年抑郁对父亲/母亲抑郁的影响,即青少年的抑郁引发父亲/母亲积极卷入教养方式的减少,而积极卷入教养方式的减少又加重了父亲/母亲的抑郁。严厉不一致教养方式是青少年抑郁的中介变量,即青少年抑郁激发了父亲/母亲采用严厉不一致的教养方式,而这种消极的教养方式又进一步加重了青少年之后的抑郁。总之,父母抑郁与青少年抑郁之间是相互影响的,既存在自上而下的代际传递效应也存在自下而上的反作用。 
其他摘要Data from WHO suggests that depression is common in all regions of the world. Because of the high correlation with suicide, depression carries a high risk for the public health. Mounting evidence from genetic behavioral studies indicated that depression is heritable, and the effect of parental depression on adolescents’ depression draws a lot attention. The adoption study suggested environment factors play an important role in the association between parental depression and adolescent depression after taking the genetic influence into consideration. However, the majority of studies focused on the effect from parental depression to child depression, and fewer studies explored the effect of child depression on parental depression, named child-driven effect. In the frame of the bio-ecological theory and the transaction model, we explored the reciprocal relationship between maternal/paternal depression and adolescents’ depression using a cross-lagged model and examined the mediating effect of parenting in the relationship between maternal/paternal depression and adolescent depression with the gender-specific effect into consideration. Data for the present study were collected from a longitudinal study named the National Survey of Adolescent Mental Health in China (AMHC). A short version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale was used to examine adolescents and their parents’ depression. Adolescents and their parents reported nurturant-involved and harsh-inconsistent parenting by responding to the scale adapted from the Iowa Youth and Families Project. Seven hundred and eighty five boys and 859 girls participated in the longitudinal study, aged from 10 to 16 years old at the initial investigation with an average age of 12.99±1.84 for boys and 12.96±1.87 for girls, respectively. Study one aimed to examine the trajectories of adolescents’ depression for boys and girls in China using the cohort-sequential design. It turns out that both boys and girls follow a linear increase pattern in depression during adolescence. Based on the finding of Study one, Study two was to examine the reciprocal relationship between maternal/paternal depression and adolescents’ depression taking the moderating effect of gender into consideration. The results suggested that the bidirectional relationship between maternal depression and adolescents’ depression was evident although the effect of adolescents’ depression was stronger than the vice versa. Adolescents’  depression significantly predicted paternal depression but not vice versa. Study three was to examine the mediating effect of parenting on the relationship between parental depression and adolescents’ depression. The findings indicated that besides of the direct effect, adolescents’ depression also played an indirect effect on maternal/paternal depression through the nurturant-involved parenting. In addition, harsh-inconsistent parenting played an indirect role in the stability of adolescent depression. Specifically, adolescents’ depression elicited parental harsh-inconsistent parenting, and harsh-inconsistent parenting strengthened adolescents’ depression later. Generally speaking, adolescents were not just affected by parental depression passively but had influence on parental depression actively. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
学科领域医学心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19591
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
侯金芹. 父母抑郁与青少年抑郁的关系——自上而下的代际传递还是自下而上的反作用?[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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