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多身份追踪中物体特征的效应及其机制研究
其他题名Studies on the Effects of Object Featurs on Multiple Identity Tracking and the Underline Mechanism
黄端
学位类型博士
导师张侃
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词多物体追踪 多身份追踪 特征 组块 身份信息 位置信息
摘要多目标追踪是研究运动物体注意追踪的一种经典范式,被广泛运用于研究动态环境下人们对多个目标的注意选择、分配和保持。由于在真实的生活环境中,被追踪的物体往往具有不同的身份特征,这些特征对追踪任务的影响已开始成为该领域研究者关注的科学问题。虽然早期研究认为物体的特征在追踪过程中是不会被加工的,但越来越多的实验结果证实物体特征的确影响人们的追踪成绩。本研究采用多身份追踪的新范式,要求观察者在追踪过程中持续地把目标的时空轨迹与身份信息相连接,以此系统地探讨多身份追踪任务中物体特征所起的效应及其机制。
针对不同类物体,研究一主要考察了观察者对跨类别不同复杂性物体追踪的成绩差异。结果发现,物体复杂性会影响观察者的追踪成绩,且这种影响的产生主要是基于目标而非干扰的复杂性,目标复杂性主要影响了观察者对目标身份的区分能力。
针对同类物体的不同特征,研究二首次引入 Stroop效应,探讨了物体语义特征和表面特征间的冲突对追踪成绩的影响。结果发现,尽管运动物体均为独特的,多特征之间的冲突仍会显著影响观察者的追踪成绩,且其主要影响了观察者的身份追踪成绩,而对位置追踪成绩并没有显著影响。
针对物体特征可组块的特性,研究三利用汉字在语义研究中的优势,结合眼动技术,首次探讨了语义的组块对多身份追踪的影响。结果发现观察者对可组成成语或五言绝句的独特汉字的追踪成绩要明显好于其他条件的。对于成语组块条件而言,观察者在追踪目标时产生的注视点更少、在每个注视点上停留的时间更长,并且产生的眼跳更少、每次眼跳的距离更短。
本研究进一步验证了语义效应对多身份追踪的影响,同时系统地探讨了干扰在多身份追踪中所起的作用,相关结果还进一步支持了位置追踪和身份追踪在一定条件下是平行进行的理论。研究深化了人们对特征影响多身份追踪任务的认识,实验结果为相关领域的应用研究提供了依据和借鉴。 
其他摘要Multiple-Object Tracking (MOT) is a classic paradigm used to study the attentional tracking of multiple moving objects, which has been widely used to study how people select, distribute and sustain their attention among several objects in a dynamic environment. In real life, however, the tracked moving objects usually carry their identity information. Hence, increasing numbers of studies have focused on the relationships between objects features and tracking process. While some previous studies have indicated that observers have very little conscious access to featural or identity information about the tracked targets, accumulating evidence indicated that objects feartures affected the tracking performance indeed. The paradigm of Multiple-Identity Tracking (MIT)was adopted in this thesis work, which required observers persistently bind the targets' spatiotemporal trajactory with there identity information. Taking the advantage of this paradigm, we systematically probed into the effects of object features on Multiple Identity Tracking and its underline mechanism.
    Research 1 mainly investigated the effects of different complexity of cross-category objects on tracking performance. The results demonstrated that the identity tracking performance decreased as the stimuli became more complex. The complexity of targets rather than the complexity of distractors was the main factor which affected identity tracking performance and made it more difficult for observers to distinguish between targets.
   To elucidate the effects of objects' multi-features, Research 2 introduced for the first time the Stroop stimuli to discuss the effects of the relationship between object features on tracking performance.The results showed that although the observers were asked to track objects with distinctive identities, the conflict of physical features and semantic features of targets also disrupted the tracking performance. The confliction of features on an object disturbed the identity tracking performance, but did not affect the location information significantly.
   Aimed at the grouping of objects, Research 3 investigated, for the first time, how the grouping of objects' semantic information affected identity tracking performance by semantic study of Chinese charactsers. The results revealed that tracking was improved with the unique Chinese characters which could constitute idioms or five-character quatrain. For the idioms tracking, the average fixation duration was longger and the average saccde amplitude was shorter.
The present study further verified the semantic effects of MIT and systematically investigated the function of distractors. The related results are in line with the theory that the identity tracking is in parallel with location tracking. This thesis work provided novel insights into the effects of object features on MIT and the underline mechanism, which is significant and informative for the related application areas.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19594
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
黄端. 多身份追踪中物体特征的效应及其机制研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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