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名字的游戏:不同性别定向的名字对女性获得面试机会的影响
其他题名The Name Game: Impact of Different Gender Orientation of Names on the Female Applicants’ Potential Interview Opportunity
苏红
学位类型硕士
导师任孝鹏
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词就业歧视 女性求职者 不同性别定向的名字 职位性别类型 面试机 会
摘要在劳动力市场上,女性求职者面临着严重的就业歧视,就业率低、就业质量差、同工不同酬等现象非常普遍。以往有关性别歧视的研究发现在生产率相同的情况下,因为性别因素女性获得的工作机会大大少于男性。在大量的研究中利用求职者的个人简历作为实验材料,通过改变简历中求职者的名字来操纵被试对不同性别的认知和判断,已经成为研究就业性别歧视的一种常用手段。
本研究将不同性别定向的名字作为操纵变量,在男女两类名字的基础上增加了中性化名字,探讨在简历筛选阶段,名字对女性求职者获得面试机会的影响。研究1采用内隐联想测验(IAT)的范式考察人们对三类名字的内隐态度评价,结果发现人们对男性化定向名字的态度最积极,对女性化定向名字的态度最消极,对中性化定向名字的态度处于二者之间,这一结果为接下来的研究提供了证据。研究2考察在提供求职者有限信息和全面信息两种情况下,三类名字对女性求职者获得面试机会的影响,结果发现两种情况下均表现为拥有男性化定向名字的女性获得的面试机会最多, 拥有中性化定向和女性化定向名字的女性获得的机会较少,且二者之间无显著差异。研究3在研究2基础上增加了职位的性别类型变量,采用3*3的混合设计,通过模拟招聘情境测量了97名大学生对求职者获得面试机会可能性的评分以及面试机会的数目,结果没有发现不同性别定向的名字和职位性别类型对求职者获得面试机会的交互影响。研究 4在真实的招聘情境中考察不同性别定向的名字对女性求职的影响,结果发现当求职男女均适合的职位时,拥有中性化定向和女性化定向名字的女性获得的面试机会多于男性化定向名字的女性。
本文通过四个具体的研究,探讨不同性别定向的名字对女性求职的影响。虽然部分研究假设没有得到证实,但初步验证了在简历筛选阶段,名字对女性求职者具有一定的影响。研究 1和研究2 均发现人们对男性化定向的名字更偏爱,表现为将男性化名字与积极词进行关联时反应时更短, 给予男性化定向名字的求职者更多的面试机会。不过研究 3和研究 4没有得到预期的结果,未来可以在研究3和4的基础上进一步完善实验继续探究求职中的名字效应。
其他摘要In the labor market, female job applicants face serious discrimination in employment which is well evident through low employment rates, poor quality of employment, unequal salary rates, etc. Previous studies on gender discrimination found that even under the condition of equal productivity, female applicants had less employment opportunities than male, just because of the sex. Numerous studies relied on the use of the candidate's written applications or resumes as experimental material altering the name of the applicant's resume manipulating subjects' gender awareness and assessment which in fact has become a common means of evaluating sex
discrimination in employment.  
In this study, besides gender orientation of applicants’ name in place of the manipulated variable and masculine and feminine names, we also included gender neutral names, which could be attributed to both male and female. To emphasize the phenomena even more, we explored the effect of name and gender identity on female applicants’ interview opportunities at the initial stage of job hunting. Study 1 relied on using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) paradigm to investigate implicit attitudes towards masculine/gender neutral/ feminine names, and led to following results: masculine names were rated more positively; female names were rated more negatively, while gender neutral names were in-between. The results provided indication for the next Study 2 which examined the name effect in situations that delivered limited and rich information of the candidates. The results of this study showed that female applicants carrying masculine names received more interview opportunities than those carrying gender neutral names and feminine names, with no significant difference between the latter two. Study 3 added the variable of occupational sex-stereotype on the basis of Study 2, with 3 (gender orientation of
names) * 3 (sex-type of the occupation) mixed experimental design, by simulating recruitment situation. 97 participants gave every applicant a hire ability rating, and indicated which of the three applicants they would choose if only one could get this job. The results showed no impact of names’ gender orientation and occupational sex-stereotype on the probability of female applicants getting a job during interview. Study 4 conducted the field study to examine the name effect of female applications for jobs in real recruitment contexts and found that when applying for the job, in particular for the position of sales representative, sexually neutral names and feminine names received more interview call-backs than masculine names. Although certain research hypotheses have not been confirmed, the study did provide significant insights. Study 1 and Study 2 have established higher preference for masculine names, and positive job evaluations associated with it resulting in more job interviews for the ones carrying more masculine names. Studies 3 and 4 did not provide the anticipated results, calling for additional revision and eventual improvement of the experimental design with the scope of further exploration of the name effect.  
Key Words:employment discrimination, female applicants, gender orientation of names, sex-type of the occupation, interview opportunity
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19656
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
苏红. 名字的游戏:不同性别定向的名字对女性获得面试机会的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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