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个体成长与科研环境对杰青科研产出的影响——以国家杰出青年基金生命科学领域受资助者为例
其他题名The Impact of Developmental and academic environment factors on scientific productivity of the Distinguished Young Scientists
万懿
学位类型硕士
导师刘正奎
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词国家杰出青年科学基金 个体成长 科研环境 科研产出 生命科学领 域
摘要创造力受个体特征和环境交互影响。杰出创造力是创造力研究的重要领域。对杰出人物的研究,可以帮助筛选出有助于他们取得成就的个体特质和社会环境。本研究选取了我国杰出青年科学基金生命科学领域的获奖者作为研究对象, 试图探索杰青个体特征与科研环境两方面的特点;并以国际发表物为指标,探讨了个体和环境因素对他们科研产出的影响。
本研究共分为三个方面。首先,我们探索了生命科学领域杰青的个体成长特征,试图找到杰青教育和职业发展阶段的一般规律。通过问卷、搜索、自传、个人简历等方法建立杰青基本信息数据库,探讨了 1994年至2011年生命科学领域282 名杰青的个体成长特征。发现杰青有以下几个特点:性别比例失衡;早期学业成绩优秀,2成比例师从院士;本硕博期间有留学经历的比例逐年下降,但毕业后出国学习的比例在 8成以上;职业发展符合十年规则,但存在学术老龄化的现象。
其次,我们考察了个体因素和杰青基金对受资助者发表物的影响。利用杰青的姓名和单位在微软学术搜索上抓取其2010 年及之前的英文发表物,包括文章作者、文章名、期刊名、年份、被引用数的次数。在删去了重名较多的杰青后,我们共分析了 182名生命科学领域杰青。结果发现,杰青文章数增长在全球处于中等偏上水平,但文章引用数和影响因子处于一般水平。通过对杰青发表物和个体因素回归分析,发现只有受资助的年龄对发表物的数量和被引用数有预测作用,且年龄越小,发表物的数量和引用数越多;其它因素比如教育经历则没有预测作用。通过对比杰青获奖前后发表物,发现杰青基金对于发表物并没有明显的影响作用。
最后,我们探讨杰青科研环境现状特点,了解哪些因素对科研工作的创新和发展有阻碍或促进作用,同时深入探究杰青基金对科研工作的影响。运用目的性抽样的方法,对 13 名杰青进行了访谈,收集他们对科研环境中影响科研工作创新和发展的因素,以及杰青基金对他们科研工作的影响。发现影响科研工作的三项主要因素为物理、社会和成员因素,其中杰青最关注经费、领导行为等因素。阻碍科研工作创新和发展的因素有:经费申请评审体系不健全、考评周期过短、顶层设计缺乏长期战略部署、学术圈有近亲化和急功近利等现象。杰青基金对于受资助者来说影响主要体现在经费、学术地位提升以及个人动机。
综上所述,本研究发现:
(1)杰青基金对于受资助者来说主要是经费上的支持、学术地位以及个人动机上的提升,杰青个体特征和基金对发表物没有影响,说明杰青基金是一项评价体系客观,认可为主、激励为辅的基金。
(2)生命科学领域杰青发表物总体上量优于质,发表物数量增长速率中等偏上,但是文章引用数和影响因子不高。
(3)杰青性别比例差异很大,女性杰青比例显著低于国外生命科学领域女性受资助者的比例。杰青早期学业优秀,两成师从院士。一般都有出国学习经历,其轨迹为在国内博士毕业后再去国外读博士后或担任访问学者,再回国任教。从毕业到达职业巅峰大约十年时间。存在学术老龄化的现象,每年获得杰青的平均年龄在逐渐增大。
(4)影响杰青科研工作最重要的环境因素主要是经费支持、领导行为(比如考核机制、教授自治)以及团队成员特质,应平衡权力监管和自主性之间个关系。目前科研环境中阻碍科研工作创新和发展的主要因素有:项目经费申请评审体系不健全、考评周期过短,顶层设计缺乏长期战略部署,学术圈有近亲化和急功近利等现象。
其他摘要  Creativity could be influenced by both individual and environmental factors. To study the eminent talents  could  help us find the individual characteristics and environmental factors which contribute to their success. This study selects  the recipients  in Life Sciences  of the Distinguished  Young Scientist  (DYS) Program, founded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), as sample to explore their characteristics from the perspectives of individual and environment. And we also examine the impact of these characteristics on their publications as the index of scientific productivity.
      This study consists of three parts. Study 1 aims at exploring the developmental characteristics of the DYS and discovering the growth pattern of their education and career. We establish a database of all the awardees from 1994 to 2011 in  the way of questionnaire, searching their personal homepage or biography. All the 282 DYS  in Life Sciences from 1994 to  2011 are selected as our sample. The results show  that there exists a severe gender disparity among all the recipients. Most of the recipients graduated  from top universities and about 20% of their mentors are Academicians. Although  the proportions of the recipients who have  experience of studying aboard during undergraduate and graduate  decrease every year, the proportions  of  the awardees who have overseas experience as students, post-doctors or visiting scholars maintain 80%.  The growth pattern of  the  DYS is in accord of the widely known “Ten-year Rule”. The academic aging is incredible.
      Study 2 aims at exploring the impact of the individual factors and fund on the publication of the DYS.  In order to minimize the measure error in matching researchers to publications we finally focused on only 182 DYS whose names are uncommon. The outcomes  were estimated by publications, citations, and Impact Factors (IF). We focused on their international publications (English version) rather than Chinese publications, and the indexes are all retrieved from Microsoft Academic Search. The results show that the scientific publication output is growing at a rate of approximately 30% annually much higher than the global rate. But the citations and IFs are not considerable. The  regression between individual factors and publications shows that only the  receipt  age could predict the publications and citations.  The younger the recipient is, the more and better the publications are. By comparing the publications before and after the DYS fund we find the fund does not have an impact on the publications.
      Study 3 aims at exploring the academic  environment of  the DYS and investigating the environmental factors that could enhance or impede the creativity of the DYS. With purposeful sampling, a sample of 13 DYS were interviewed with three questions, including their attitude towards the scientific environment, the influence of the DYS fund on their publications and  their international experience. The academic environment consists of three factors including physical, social and  membership, among which the fund and leadership are of most concern. The interviews show that what impede the research most are the unwholesome application system of the funds or programs, short-term assessment, deficiency of long-term  strategic deployment, and academic inbreeding. The influence of the DYS fund on the recipients reflects on the money, acceptance of prior work, and motivation.
Overall, the main conclusions are as follows.
      (1) The  study finds that the DYS fund has an impact on the recipients by influencing the money, academic identity and motivation, and individual factors or the DYS fund has no prediction for publication, which indicates that the assessment system of the DYS fund is objective and the fund is more approbatory of prior works rather than stimulates the subsequent productivity.  
(2) The  quantity of  publications  are more considerable than the quality. The scientific publication output is growing at a high rate but the citations and IFs are not.
(3) The  gender disparity is stark within  the DYS. With  excellent academic performance at school, about 20% of their teachers are Academicians. Generally, they had overseas experience for post-doctor or visiting scholar after graduation. The time span from graduation to  career peak is ten years.  The average age of the DYS  is growing annually which indicates the academic aging.
(4) Money, leadership and membership are the main factors that influence the research.  There exist some drawbacks within academia such as  the unwholesome evaluation system of funds,  short-term assessment, deficiency of long-term  strategic deployment, and academic inbreeding.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19664
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
万懿. 个体成长与科研环境对杰青科研产出的影响——以国家杰出青年基金生命科学领域受资助者为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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