|Alternative Title||Human Operation Charcteristics and Performance Evaluation of Civil Aircraft Landing Incidents|
|Place of Conferral||北京|
|Keyword||着陆安全 人因 操作特征 绩效评价|
|Abstract|| 尽管飞机着陆的时间仅占总飞行时间的 1%，但着陆却是民机飞行事故发生最多的阶段，事故统计表明过去十年全球有23%的飞行事故发生在该阶段，其中驾驶舱人因差错一直是导致这些事故最主要的诱因，占到事故致因的 60%以上，因此解决着陆阶段的人因问题是改善飞行安全最有效、直接的途径。本研究以飞行快速存取记录器（Quick Access Recorder，QAR）数据为基础，综合应用数据挖掘、统计建模、模拟飞行实验、问卷调研等方法对着陆异常事件的人因操作特征和绩效评价问题展开研究。|
研究二应用眼动追踪设备在模拟飞行环境中对 10 名被试开展了目视着陆操作眼动实验，结论表明：注视时间百分比、注视转移次数、平均注视时间组合而成的注视模式特征与着陆绩效之间存在较强相关性，在着陆过程中绩效优组对舱外景区的注视百分比显著高于绩效差组、绩效优组总的注视转移次数显著多于绩效差组、绩效优组对舱内仪表的平均注视时间显著短于绩效差组。
研究三将着陆过程中影响目视判断和操作的因素设计进一套着陆情境问卷中，通过对专家飞行员实施情境问卷调研，并应用熵权法处理了 32 份有效问卷数据，结论表明：着陆过程中影响飞行员目视判断最重要的五个因素分别是能见度、助航设施、飞行经验、飞行能力、地面参照，影响飞行员手动操作最重要的五个因素分别是飞行技能、飞行经验、风速、着陆重量、着陆构型。
研究四基于 QAR 数据和风险评价原理提出了一个着陆操作绩效评价模型，即通过计算每次着陆后远接地、重着陆、擦机尾三类着陆异常事件的发生风险来评价飞行员的操作绩效，并依据该模型开发了一个飞行着陆操作绩效评价系统， 结论表明该系统可以实现着陆操作绩效评价、飞行数据处理、事件查询统计等功能，QAR数据的进一步应用验证了模型和系统的可用性。
|Other Abstract||Landing only accounts for 1% of the whole flight time, but holds the most amount of flight accidents. The global accident statistics indicated that 23% of flight accidents happened in landing phase in the past ten years. Meanwhile, human error in flight deck is the most important inducing factor and contributed to 60% of accidents. Resolving human factors issues in landing will be the most effctive way to promote current flight safety level. Based on flight Quick Access Recorder (QAR) data, this research aims to find the human operation characteristics of landing incidents and evaluate pilot operation performance by jointly using methods of data mining, statistical modeling, flight simulating experiment and pilot survey. |
In Study I, 293 cases of flight QAR data were collected, and the analysis of variance was carried out for finding flight parameter characteristics of abnormal landing at a flare initial point and in the whole flare process. Then two regression models were developed to analyze the potential correlations between flare operations and landing performance. Finally, it was concluded that flare would greatly influence touchdown distance and vertical acceleration through the two key factors of flare time and height. The control column and throttle operation would affect landing performance conjointly. Pilots’ quick and steady pulling up columns and softer throttle reduction are helpful for a better flare operation and better landing performance.
In Study II, an experiment with eye tracking in flight simulator was conducted to find the human fixation pattern in landing phase. The results of experiment indicated that strong correlation existed between landing performance and fixation pattern consisting of fixation percentage, number of fixation transfer and fixation average time. In visual landing process, the group with excellent operation performance allocated more time and fixation points on outside view and the average time on instrument was significantly less than the group with poor performance.
In Study III, these factors influencing visual perception and operation were considered and designed into a landing scenario questionnaire. Then the questionnaire survey was implemented among experienced pilots and entropy weight method was used to deal with obtained 32 sample data. The results indicated that five important factors affecting visual perception and judgment were visibility, navigation aids, flight experience, flight ability and ground visual references. These top five factors affecting manual operation in landing were flight skill, flight experience, wind speed, gross weight and configuration.
In Study IV, a landing operation performance evaluation model based on flight QAR data and risk theory. The pilot operation performance could be evaluated according to the occurrence risk of long landing, hard landing and tail strike incidents after each landing. Meanwhile based on this model, an applicable landing operation performance evaluation system was developed with function of flight data processing, performance evaluation and incident statistics. Finally the QAR data was used to examine the usability of the evaluation model and system.
To sum up, the whole research examined human operation and visual characteristics, influencing factors and performance evaluation of landing incidents, these results would be the basis of further safety landing research. These findings in this research can also be applied into practice for airlines to optimize flight training, evaluate flight operation performance, prevent landing incidents and improve flight safety in further.
|汪磊. 民机着陆异常事件人因操作特征与绩效评价研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.|
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