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内隐与外显安全认知对工作安全行为的影响: 双系统模型的视角
其他题名The Effectsof Implicitand ExplicitSafety Cognitions on Workplace Safety Behaviors: Perspective of Dual-systemModel
胥遥山
学位类型博士
导师李永娟 ; 李纾
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词安全行为 双系统模型 自动化系统 控制系统 自我控制
摘要人的因素(human factors)是高风险企业安全的重要贡献因素,因此从行为科学角度探索影响员工安全行为的因素,对于高风险企业降低事故与伤亡具有重要的意义。以往研究主要通过测量员工外显的安全动机、态度等变量,关注影响安全行为的控制系统(controlled system)。社会心理学的双系统(dual-system)模型认为,个体的行为受到自动化系统(automatic system)和控制系统的双重影响。因此,探索自动化系统对安全行为的影响可以帮助我们更好的理解安全行为的发生机制。本文借鉴双系统模型,通过三个研究探索了不同类型的自动化认知(内隐认知,安全注意偏向、内隐安全态度和内隐安全动机)和控制认知(外显认知,外显安全态度和外显安全动机)对安全行为的影响,以及个体差异和情境因素对双系统与行为关系的调节作用。
研究一采用安全stroop和点探测范式测量安全注意偏向,检验了安全注意偏向对安全行为的影响及机制。研究二采用内隐联想测验测量内隐安全态度,问卷法测量外显安全态度,检验了内隐和外显安全态度对安全行为的预测作用以及自我控制的调节作用。研究三采用IAT范式测量内隐安全动机,问卷法测量外显安全动机,检验了内隐和外显安全动机对安全行为的影响以及压力情境的调节作用。
结果发现:(1)高安全绩效的员工倾向于将注意资源自动化地分配在与安全相关的信息上,而低安全绩效的员工则没有这种倾向。安全注意偏向能够通过员工对安全的知觉(知觉到的安全气氛)对安全行为产生积极影响。(2)在控制外显安全态度的基础上,内隐安全态度能够显著的预测员工的安全行为。此外,内隐和外显安全态度对安全行为的影响受自我控制调节。与低自我控制的个体相比,高自我控制个体的安全行为更容易受外显安全态度的影响;与高自我控制的个体相比,低自我控制个体的安全行为更容易受到内隐安全态度的影响。(3)在控制外显安全动机的基础上,内隐安全动机能够显著的预测员工的安全行为。
总体而言,本研究发现不同类型的自动化认知对工作场所安全行为具有显著的预测作用,并与控制系统共同影响员工的安全行为。自动化安全认知能够在环境线索下自动激活,并促使员工以无意识和资源消耗较低的方式进行安全行为。因此,良好的安全自动化认知有助于员工更为自发地将安全行为作为优势选择。本研究将双系统模型引入安全领域,拓展了我们对安全领域中自动化系统和控制系统对员工安全行为影响的认识,并为安全管理者将不同类型的自动化认知应用到选拔与培训中,从而改善安全绩效提供了理论基础。
其他摘要Human factors contribute to approximately 70% of workplace accidents in high risk industries. Hence, it’s important to explore factors that affect employees’safety behavior from the perspective of behavioral sciences. Previous studies have mainly focused on the impact of controlled cognitions(such as explicitsafety attitudeandsafety motivation)on safety behaviors. Dual-system model in social psychology suggests that human behaviors were the joint outcome of automated systems and control systems. Therefore, exploring the effects of automatic cognitions on safety behaviors can help us to deeply understand the mechanism. Drawing on the dual-system model, three studies were conducted to explore the influences ofdifferent types of automatic cognitions (attentional bias towards safety, implicit safety attitudes and implicit safety motivation) and controlled cognitions (explicit safety attitudeand explicit safety motivation) on safety behaviors, as well as the moderating effects of individual differences in self-control and situational factors on the automaticand controlled systems and safety behaviors relationships.
In study 1, two different reaction time-based paradigms (safety stroop and dot probe task) were used to assess employees’attentional bias towards safety, and the influence of attentional bias towards safety on safety behaviors was examined. In study 2,implicit safety attitude and explicit safety attitude were measured by Implicit Association Task (IAT) and questionnaire, respectively. The effects of implicitandexplicit safety attitudes on safety behaviors and the moderating effect of self-control were explored. In Study 3, IAT paradigm and questionnaire were used to measure implicit safety motivation and explicit safety motivation, respectively. The effects of implicitand explicit safety motivation on safety behaviors and the moderating effect of work stress were explored.
The results showed: (1) Employees with high safety performance displayed significant attention bias towards safety, while the employees with low safety performance did not. Attention bias towards safety positively predicted safety behaviors, and this effect was mediated by employees’ safety perception (perceived safety climate). (2) After the explicit safety attitude being controlled, implicit safety attitude significantly predicted employees’ safety behaviors. In addition, the relationship between implicitand explicit safety attitude and safety behavior was moderated by individual differences in self-control. Compared with employees with low self-control, safety behaviors of those with high self-control were more influenced by explicit safety attitude; compared with employees with high self-control, safety behaviors of those with low self-control were more likely to be affected by the implicit safety attitude. (3) After the explicit safety motivation being controlled, implicit safety motivation significantly predicted employees’ safety behaviors.
In summary, the present research indicated that different types of automatic cognitions have significant influence on the safety behaviors in workplace, and automatic cognitionsand controlled cognitions jointly affect safety behaviors. Automatic cognitions regarding safety can be spontaneously activated by environmental cues and guide employees to work safely spontaneously with low resource consumption. Therefore,well-formed automatic cognitionscan help employees to save cognitive resource and improve safety performance.
This research introduced dual-system model into safety field, expanding our understanding of the important role of automatic systemin workplace safety. Safetymanagers can apply automatic cognitions regarding safety into personnel selection and training, thereby improving the safety performance.
学科领域应用心理学
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19733
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
胥遥山. 内隐与外显安全认知对工作安全行为的影响: 双系统模型的视角[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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