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自我肯定影响决策结果的行为和神经反应
其他题名The influence of self-affirmation on behavioral and neural responses to outcomes of decision-making
杨璟
学位类型博士
导师蔡华俭
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词自我肯定 家庭我肯定 风险决策 情绪 神经反应
摘要大量研究表明,面对威胁、挫折、困难等时,自我肯定会减少个体的防御性和负性反应,增加积极的适应性行为。本研究通过五个实验对自我肯定如何影响决策后结果反馈引起的各种行为(如,情绪、风险寻求、合作倾向)和神经生理反应进行了系列研究。实验一(N = 51)、实验二(N = 86)和实验三(N = 42)以经济赌博游戏为基本范式,考察面对损失和收益结果时,自我肯定能否影响个体的情绪反应、后继的冒险行为以及神经生理反应(反馈相关负波和P3);实验四(N = 94)和实验五(N = 38)以最后通牒游戏为基本范式,考察面对不公平和公平分配时,自我肯定是否会影响个体的情绪反应、后继的合作行为以及神经生理反应(反馈相关负波和P3)。
基于赌博游戏的实验发现:(1)自我肯定会减少负性结果引起的负性情绪,增加正性结果引起的正性情绪;但是,不管结果反馈是正性还是负性,自我肯定都会使后继的风险决策更为保守且具有自我促进功能;(2)相对于正性结果反馈,自我肯定增强了负性结果反馈和模糊结果反馈诱发的反馈相关负波,但对P3没有显著影响。基于最后通牒游戏的实验发现:(1)面对对家提出的不公平方案,自我肯定会减少负性情绪体验,增强与游戏中同一对家的合作倾向,增加个体进行自我促进的决策;面对游戏中对家提出的公平方案,自我肯定则能增强正性情绪体验,增加个体进行自我促进的决策;(2)面对对家提出的不公平方案,自我肯定增强不公平方案诱发的P3,但是对反馈相关负波没有显著影响。总之,自我肯定能够促进适应性的行为反应,增强大脑对负性反馈信息的加工。
这些发现加深了人们对自我肯定功能及其神经机制的认识,扩展了自我肯定理论应用的领域,为决策失败后的应对提供了新的思路。鉴于本研究在中国进行,采用的是适用于中国的家庭我肯定,这些发现也为家庭我肯定的有效性提供了新的行为和神经证据。
其他摘要Research has established that self-affirmation could reduce defensive and negative responses and increase positive and adaptive behaviors in coping with threat, frustrate and difficulties. In this research, five experiments were conducted to examine the influence of self-affirmation on behavioral (e.g., emotion, risk-seeking, cooperation) and neurophysiological responses to outcome feedback of decision-making. Experiment 1 (N = 51), Experiment 2 (N = 86), and Experiment 3 (N = 42) were based in Monetary Gambling Task (MGT) and examined whether self-affirmation could influence negative emotion experiences, ensuing risk behavior and neurophysiological responses (feedback-related negativity and P3) when facing loss and gain outcomes. Experimental 4 (N= 94) and Experiment 5 (N= 38) were based on Ultimatum Game (UG) and examined whether self-affirmation could modulate the emotion experiences, ensuing cooperation and neurophysiological responses (feedback-related negativity and P3) when facing unfair and fair offers.
Results based on MGT showed that (1) behaviorally, self-affirmation reduced negative emotion experiences caused by negative feedback but enhanced positive ones caused by positive feedback; however, regardless of the valence of feedback, self-affirmation increased tendencies of ensuing risk-aversion and self-enhancement; (2) on neural indexes, compared with positive feedback, self-affirmation augmented feedback-related negativity (FRN) elicited by negative feedback but made no difference in P3. Results based on UG showed that (1) behaviorally, self-affirmation reduced negative emotion experiences caused by unfair offer, increased the tendency of ensuing cooperating with the same partner and making self-enhancing decisions; (2) on neural indexes, self-affirmation enlarged the P3 elicited by unfair offer but produced no influence on FRN. In summary, self-affirmation enhanced adaptive responses to feedback of decision-making and facilitated process of negative feedback information.
These findings deepen people’s understanding of the function of self-affirmation as well as its neural mechanism, extend the potential application of self-affirmation in decision-making, and provide a new way to cope with responses to negative outcomes of decision-making. Since the familial self-affirmation paradigm, which is particularly useful in China, was employed in the experiments conducted in China, the findings also provide novel behavioral and neural evidences for the utility of familial self-affirmation.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19744
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杨璟. 自我肯定影响决策结果的行为和神经反应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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