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精神分裂症患者最后通牒博弈行为研究及其心理与神经机制探讨
其他题名UltimatumGame Performancesof Patients with Schizophrenia and RelatedPsychological and Neural Mechanisms
杨柳青
学位类型硕士
导师周媛
2015-11
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词精神分裂症 最后通牒 心理理论 神经认知 功能磁共振成像
摘要精神分裂症是一种严重且仍极具挑战性的精神疾病,多数患者都存在社会互动障碍。研究患者受损的社会互动的潜在机制,有助于理解精神分裂症的心理病理机制,进而可能促进新的旨在改善患者社会功能的治疗的发展。在整个实验研究中,我们采用最后通牒游戏及其变式—迷你最后通牒游戏,从行为与脑影像两个水平,探索了精神分裂症患者相比健康对照表现出的异常互动行为,及其潜在的心理机制与神经机制。
研究一采用最后通牒游戏及迷你最后通牒游戏考察精神分裂症患者的异常互动行为。同时,衡量所有被试的心理理论能力及神经认知能力。进一步,通过中介分析,验证心理理论能力和神经认知能力在患者异常互动行为中的中介作用。结果表明,精神分裂症患者确实存在异常行为,即对不公平方案有较低拒绝率,而对公平甚至超公平方案具有较高拒绝率。同时,心理理论的中介作用成立,精神分裂症患者的心理理论能力缺陷至少可以部分地解释其异常互动行为。单独神经认知能力的中介作用不成立,说明患者的神经认知损伤与其异常互动行为没有直接关系。
研究二仍采用略区别于研究一的迷你最后通牒游戏,以及功能磁共振成像技术。我们发现,相比研究一,研究二中,精神分裂症患者与健康对照的行为表现差异较小,患者面对于己有利(公平和超公平)的分配方案,仍表现出更高的拒绝率。此外,影像结果表明,不利条件下,相比精神分裂症患者,健康对照的额下回有更高程度的激活,且患者组在该区域的激活程度与其拒绝率呈显著负相关,因此额下回在此可能起到抑制优势反应的作用。此外,相比健康对照,两种条件下,患者组的距状回都有更显著的激活且不利条件下强度更高。因为距状回与更具情绪唤起性的视觉信息相关,因此患者参与互动时,可能情绪唤起更强,这也与其略多的拒绝表现一致。但考虑到两组被试在行为水平上的差异较小,前人对相关脑区的研究有限,以及精神分裂症患者最后通牒游戏脑影像研究的缺乏,以上结果的解释还有待相关研究进一步的检验。
总之,我们采用最后通牒游戏得到了与前人研究基本一致的结果,即发现精神分裂症患者具有异常社会互动表现。同时我们首次采用迷你最后通牒游戏,考察精神分裂症患者异常互动行为与其心理理论损伤的关系,直接验证了心理理论能力的中介作用,至少部分揭示了患者异常互动行为的心理机制。进一步,我们结合功能磁共振成像技术,首次初步探索了迷你最后通牒游戏中,精神分裂症患者互动行为的神经机制,既得到了与前人最后通牒影像研究中公平效应相符合的结果,也有患者与对照不同激活区反应的新发现。
其他摘要Schizophreniais one serious and challenging mental disorder, and most patients with schizophrenia suffer from difficulties with social interactions. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of impaired social interactions can help in understanding the psychopathology of schizophrenia and may foster the development of new therapies that focus on improving the functional outcome of patients with schizophrenia. In the present thesis, on both behavioral and neural levels, we took Ultimatum Game (UG) and mini UG to explore the abnormal interactive behaviors of patients with schizophrenia and their potential psychological and neural mechanisms.
In Study 1, we took UG and mini UG to explore the abnormal interactive behaviors of patients with schizophrenia. In addition, we measured both the theory of mind (ToM) ability and neurocognitive ability of each subject. Furthermore, we took mediation analysis to testify the mediation effect of ToM and/or neurocognition in the abnormal performances of patients with schizophrenia in the (mini) UG. The results indicated that compared to the healthy controls, the patients with schizophrenia showed lower rejection rates of the unfair or disadvantageous proposals in both of the two UG tasks and showed higher rejection rates of the advantageous proposals in the mini UG. Impaired ToM and neurocognition were found in the patients. Mediation analyses indicated that ToM but not neurocognition partially mediated the group differences in the mini UG. Thus,social interaction impairments in patients with schizophrenia might be partly due to ToM deficits but not directly correlated with neurocognitive deficits.
In Study 2, we used mini UG combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI)to explore the potential neural explanations of the abnormal social interactive behaviors of patients with schizophrenia. We found that compared to the Study 1, in Study 2, the group differences onbehavioral levelwere not that significant between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Facing the advantageous proposals, patients with schizophrenia stillshowed more rejection rates.Furthermore, the fMRI results indicated that compared to the patients with schizophrenia, facing the disadvantageous proposals, healthy controls showed significantly stronger activation ininferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and the activityof patients with schizophreniainIFG was negatively correlated with their rejection rates. This result suggested that IFG may inhibit the preponderant response. In addition, compared to the healthy controls, in both conditions, patients with schizophrenia showed more activation incalcarine. As the activity of calcarine was associated with salient emotional visual information, when patients played the game, they might have higheremotion arousal level, andtheir slightly higher rejection rates may be related to it. However, considering the relatively limited extent of group differences on behavioral level in the study,andfew reports of these regions, and the vacancy of neural investigations about the (mini) UG performances of patients with schizophrenia, the results of this study needed further examination infuturerelated studies.
In summary, taking the UG, we foundthat patients with schizophrenia showed abnormal social interactive behaviorsand the result echoed previous studies. Besides,we took the mini UG to explore the relationship between patients’ abnormal performances and their ToM deficits. Through mediation effect analysis, we directly testified the mediation effect of ToM and at least partly revealed the psychological mechanism of patients’ abnormal performances. Furthermore, combined with fMRI technique, we explored the neural mechanism underlying the mini UG performances of patients with schizophrenia. We found the similar regions related to fairness reported by previous studies and we also revealedpatient’s different activation patternin the mini UG.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19745
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杨柳青. 精神分裂症患者最后通牒博弈行为研究及其心理与神经机制探讨[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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