|其他题名||The effects of personality characteristics on driving safety and the moderate effects of situational variables|
|关键词||人格 风险驾驶行为 驾驶绩效 超速 时间压力 乘客在场|
|摘要|| 在构成道路交通系统的人、车、路三方面因素中，人因因素对道路交通安全有着重要影响，据统计，2011 年的交通事故中，95%的事故与驾驶员的风险驾驶行为相关。为此以往研究探讨了很多影响风险驾驶行为的因素，结果发现驾驶员的人格特征是一个重要变量。 人格特征不但能预驾驶员的风险驾驶行为还与驾驶绩效变量即驾驶事故和罚分等密切相关。但是以往研究主要在美国、挪威、英国、澳大利亚等地开展，在中国研究人格对驾驶安全影响的实证研究相对较少，且不完善。因此，本文拟在中国驾驶环境下探讨人格特征是否会对中国驾驶员的驾驶安全产生影响， 同时分析在不同的驾驶情境中人格变量如何与情境因素相互作用从而影响驾驶行为。|
论文共包含2项研究。研究一采用问卷调研的方式测量了478 名驾驶员的四方面人格特征(愤怒、感觉寻求、利他性以及无规范性)，四类风险驾驶行为(攻击性违规、一般性违规、错误及失误)，以及两个驾驶绩效变量(过去三年内发生的驾驶事故数和在过去一年内的罚分)。研究探讨了驾驶员的人格特征对驾驶员的风险驾驶行为及驾驶绩效的影响。 研究二选择超速驾驶行为作为风险驾驶行为的代表，采用情境实验的方式考察了两个情境变量，时间压力和乘客在场是否能调节人格对超速行为的预测作用。研究采用2(时间压力：有 vs 无)×2(乘客在场：有 vs 无)的被试间设计，要求被试评价自己在驾驶情境中的超速意向并完成人格问卷。研究探讨了在不同驾驶情境下，驾驶员的人格特征对超速意愿的影响。结果得到： 四个人格变量愤怒、感觉寻求、利他性以及无规范性对驾驶员风险驾驶行为的预测作用均达到了显著水平。在愤怒、感觉寻求以及无规范性上得分较高，而在利他性上得分较低的驾驶员有更多攻击性违规、一般性违规、错误以及失误行为。此外，驾驶员的某些人格特征还与驾驶绩效变量密切相关，能显著预测他们在过去三年内发生的驾驶事故数以及过去一年内的罚分数。具体地，愤怒和利他性是预测驾驶员在过去三年内驾驶事故的显著变量，而利他性和无规范性则是预测驾驶员在过去一年内罚分数的显著变量。 人格变量除了能直接影响驾驶绩效变量外，还能通过驾驶员的风险驾驶行为间接地对驾驶绩效变量产生影响。本研究分析了两类风险驾驶行为违规和错误对人格和驾驶绩效变量之间关系的中介作用，结果得到违规行为能显著地中介人格对驾驶绩效变量的影响，但是错误行为的中介作用并不显著。
|其他摘要||Human factors play an important role in driving safety. According to the report of China Road Accidents Statistics, 95% of the accidents in 2011 were caused by drivers’ risky driving behavior. Thus many previous studies were carried out to explore what can predict drivers’ risky driving behavior. The results indicated that personality characteristics played an important role. Personality variables were significant predictors for both risky driving behavior and accident involvement.|
However, most previous studies were conducted in America, Norway, Britain and Australia. Few studies ever investigated the effects of personality traits on driving safety in China. Therefore, the present dissertation was aimed to examine whether personality characteristics had an influence on driving safety in China and whether the effects of personality was moderated by situational variables. In study one, 478 Chinese drivers were surveyed. Divers were required to complete the questionnaires assessing their personality traits (anger, sensation-seeking, altruism and normlessness), risky driving behavior (aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and lapses), accident records and driving offense points. Multiple regressions were carried out to investigate the effects of personality on risky driving behavior, accident records and driving offense points. Study two was aimed to explore whether the effects of personality on risky driving behavior were moderated by situational variables. Speeding was selected as the representative risky driving behavior. Two situational variables involving time pressure and passenger presence were examined. A 2(time pressure: yes or no)×2(passenger presence: yes or no) between subject design was used and four scenarios were designed. Participants were required to evaluate their willingness to speed in one of the four scenarios and finish the personality questionnaire. Multiple regressions were conducted to explore the moderate effects of time pressure and passenger presence on the relationship between personality variables and speed intention.
The results revealed that all the four personality traits including anger, sensation-seeking, altruism and normlessness were significant predictors for risky driving behavior. Those who have high scores on traits anger, sensation-seeking and normlessness while have low score on trait altruism were expected to have more aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and lapses. Furthermore, personality traits were also significantly correlated accident records and driving offense points. Specifically, traits anger and altruism were two significant predictors for drivers’
accident records while driving offense points were predicted by altruism and normlessness. Besides, the results in study one suggested that personality traits not only had direct effects on accident records and driving offense points, but also had indirect effects on accident records and driving offense points via violations. However, the mediation effect of errors was not significant in the present study.
On the other hand, the effects of personality on risky driving behavior such as speeding were modulated by situational variables. When driving under no time pressure, traits sensation-seeking and normlessness were significant predictors for speeding. However, when driving under time pressure, the predictive effects of traits anger, sensation-seeking, altruism and normlessness on speeding were non-significant.
|杨娇艳. 驾驶人格因素对驾驶安全的影响及其影响条件[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.|