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一般和死亡突显条件下死亡焦虑个体的注意偏向
其他题名Attentional Bias of Death Anxiety in General and Mortality Salient Situations
张智丰
学位类型博士
导师韩布新
2013-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词死亡焦虑 注意偏向 点探测 死亡突显 恐惧管理理论
摘要死亡焦虑(Death Anxiety),又称死亡恐惧,是一种对死亡的负性心理反应。以往研究发现,高死亡焦虑的个体在日常生活中表现出明显的适应不良。
本研究在综述了恐惧管理理论(TMT)、创伤后成长理论(PTG)及其他临床理论后,提出死亡焦虑的注意和动机目标模型。从注意调节的角度,解释高死亡焦虑的形成和维持机制。借鉴焦虑的注意偏向研究领域的范式,本研究提出死亡焦虑个体的注意偏向可能存在短时程(175ms)的注意朝向(orientation),及长时程(500ms)的注意脱离(disengagement)困难;这些注意指标与被试报告的死亡焦虑和死亡回避水平显著相关。
研究一首先在945人样本中修订了当前国外最新的测量死亡态度的多维量表(Death Attitude Profile-Revised, DAP-R(Wong,Reker & Gesser, 1994),获得了良好的信效度:探索性因素分析五个因素分别解释方差24.98%、12.64%、10.07%、5.63%、5.43%(共计58.76%);验证性因素分析CFI=0.95、NFI=0.90、NNFI=0.95、IFI=0.96、RMSEA=0.058、χ2/df=1.61;量表总分Cronbachα系数为0.84,分量表的内部一致性信度分别为0.80、0.79、0.80、0.79、0.82;四周重测信度为0.78、0.80、0.65、0.71、0.70。
在修订量表基础上,选择死亡恐惧维度得分最高、中间、最低各20%个体,采用加入中性-中性图片对的点探测研究范式(Koster et al, 2004),考察高、中、低水平死亡焦虑个体对死亡信息图片的注意偏向(attentional bias)、注意朝向(orientation)和注意脱离(disengagement)困难。其中,注意偏向是指,当死亡-中性图片同时呈现时,被试对探测点出现在死亡图片位置上的反应时更短;注意朝向是指,相比于中性-中性图片对的反应时,当探测点出现在死亡-中性图片对死亡图片位置上时,被试的反应时更短;注意脱离困难是指,相比于中性-中性图片对的反应时,当探测点出现在死亡-中性图片对的中性图片位置时,被试的反应时更长。可以将注意朝向和注意脱离看作是注意偏向的两个成分。
研究二在一般情境下,同时呈现死亡图片和中性图片,高、中、低死亡焦虑个体人数分别为27、22和26人。175ms时,三组被试中,低死亡焦虑组的注意明显偏向中性信息图片,而高死亡焦虑组则较偏向死亡信息图片;对死亡信息图片的注意朝向与被试主观报告的死亡恐惧、死亡回避得分显著正相关。在500ms水平上未发现对死亡图片的注意偏向和注意脱离困难。
研究三在死亡突显情境下,高、中、低死亡焦虑个体人数分别为39、42、41人。呈现图片175ms,高死亡焦虑组被试存在对死亡图片的注意朝向;在500ms时,高死亡焦虑组被试存在对死亡图片的注意脱离困难;两者与被试主观报告的死亡焦虑及死亡回避显著相关;在500ms时,死亡突显条件下高死亡焦虑者比另外两组被试的注意更难从死亡图片上脱离开,而在控制条件下,高死亡焦虑者并没有表现出比另外两组被试更显著的注意脱离困难倾向。
结论:与中低死亡焦虑被试相比,一般情境下,高死亡焦虑者在短时程上表现出对死亡信息的注意偏向;而在死亡突显条件下,高死亡焦虑者表现出短时程对死亡信息的注意朝向,及更长时程上的注意脱离困难。
其他摘要 Death Anxiety, also named fear of death, is a negative reaction to death. Previous researches have found that, high death anxiety people adapted poorly in daily life.
After summarizing terror management theory (TMT), posttraumatic growth theory (PTG) and other clinical theory, an attentional and motivational model of death anxiety was put forward. This model explained how high level of death anxiety was formed and sustained from the perspective of attention regulation. And referring to research areas of attentional bias and anxiety, this research supposed that in short time course (175ms) high death anxiety subjects may be more oriented to death pictures and more difficult to disengage from death pictures in longer time course (500ms). These attentional indicators were significantly correlated with death anxiety and death avoidance.
First research revised Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAP-R) in a sample of 945 people. Results showed that DAP-R had good reliability and validity. Exploratory factor analysis found five factors which explained 24.98%, 24.98%, 10.07%, 5.63%, 5.43% of variance, respectively (total 58.76%); Confirmatory factor analysis found CFI=0.95、NFI=0.90、NNFI=0.95、IFI=0.96、RMSEA=0.058、χ2/df=1.61; Whole scale’s Cronbach alpha coefficient is 0.84; internal consistency reliabilities of five subscales were 0.80, 0.79, 0.80, 0.79, 0.82, respectively; the retest reliabilities were 0.78, 0.80, 0.65, 0.71, and 0.70, respectively.
Based on the fear of death subscale scores of DAP-R, second and third researches chose groups of high, medium and low death anxiety people from upper and lower 20% scores and people in the middle. Using revised dot-probe task, these two researches examed attetional bias, attentional orientation and disengagement towards death pictures in death anxiety. Attentional bias means shorter reaction time when dot probe was presented at the position of death picture compared with the position of neutral picture. Attentional orientation means, compared with reaction time of neutral-neutral pictures, reaction time was shorter when dot-probe was presented at the position of death picture of death-neutral pictures. Attentional disengagement means, compared with reaction time of neutral-neutral pictures, reaction time was shorter when dot-probe was presented at the position of neutral picture of death-neutral pictures. The latter two indicators can be seen as two components of attentional bias.
In second study, there were 27, 22 and 26 people in the high, medium and low death anxiety group, respectively. Results showed that in general situation, when death and neutral pictures were presented at same time for 175ms,low death anxiety group was more biased for neutral pictures compared with the other two groups, while high death anxiety group had slight attentional bias for death pictures. Attentional orientation for death pictures in 175ms time course was significantly correlated with self-reported fear of death and death avoidance. In time course of 500ms neither attentional bias nor difficult to disengage from death pictures were found.
In third study, there were 39, 42 and 41 people in the high, medium and low death anxiety group, respectively. Results showed that in mortality salience condition, when pictures were presented for 175ms, high death anxiety group was more oriented towards death pictures; in time course of 500ms, high death anxiety group was more difficult to disengage from death pictures; both indicators were significantly correlated with self-reported death anxiety and avoidance. In time course of 500ms, high death anxiety group was more difficult to disengage from death pictures in mortality salience condition but not in control conditions.
Conclusion: compared with low and medium death anxiety subjects, in general situation, high death anxiety subjects had attentional bias for death information at shorter time course; and in mortality salience condition, high death anxiety subjects had attetional orientation for death information at shorter time-course and disengagement difficulty at longer time course.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19775
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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张智丰. 一般和死亡突显条件下死亡焦虑个体的注意偏向[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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