|其他题名||Exploring the Causes of High-Aberrant Drivers’ High Accident Risk ------ The High-Abettant Drivers’ Driving Performance, Driving Style and Visual Attention in Driving|
|导师||傅小兰 ; 陈文锋|
|关键词||不良驾驶行为 不良驾驶者 DBQ 手机 变化盲|
|摘要||道路交通事故是现代人类社会所面临的重大挑战，而人的行为，尤其是驾驶者的不良驾驶行为（aberrant driving behavior）是造成交通事故的重要原因。不良驾驶行为具有3个相对独立的类别：失误（errors）、疏忽（lapses）和违规（violations），驾驶者不良驾驶行为的总体水平可通过曼彻斯特驾驶者行为问卷（DBQ）测得。|
|其他摘要|| Traffic accident poses a great threat on road users in everyday life. Although there are many factors underlie an accident, human behavior, especially the aberrant driving behavior is generally cited as the most frequent cause of accidents. The aberrant driving behavior is composed with three categories: errors, lapses and violations. The general level of the aberrant driving behavior conducted by a driver could be measured using the Manchester Drivers Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ).|
The high-aberrant drivers, who have relatively higher frequency of aberrant driving behaviors, are usually associated with higher crash risk. In order to lower down the frequency of aberrant behaviors of high-aberrant drivers and reduce the crash risk of them, it is necessary to figure out the reason why the high-aberrant drivers have higher accident rates. This issue has been explored by many researchers mainly through investigations with self-reported data and accidents records, lacking of empirical data from real driving test and in-depth study on the cognitive mechanism of aberrant driving behaviors.
This project would systematically explore the underlying reasons of high-aberrant drivers’ higher accident risk on two levels: the general frequency of aberrant driving behaviors measured by DBQ, and the typical aberrant driving behaviors of different categories. First, the features of driving performance of the drivers with high DBQ scores in real driving were measured through a naturalistic experiment, where we found that the high-violation drivers had higher average velocity, more fluctuating vehicle positions, more lane changes, longer time in the leftmost lane and more abrupt accelerations or brakes, and the high-lapses drivers had higher steering wheel reversal rate. These results provide a reasonable explanation for the frequently observed positive relationship between DBQ scores and accident rates.
Cell phone use in driving and “looked but failed to see” phenomenon were chosen to be explored in depth as typical behaviors of DBQ violations dimension and errors dimension. The higher crash risk of the drivers who use cell phone while driving has been extensively reported and the impairment of driving performance when drivers using a cell phone has also been proved by many lab experiments, however, few literatures paid attention to those drivers’ driving behavior beyond the cell phone use. In the present study we found that the drivers who frequently use cell phone while driving have the riskier driving behavior style, including more aggressive driving performance, more positive attitude towards taking risk in driving and higher DBQ violations scores. These results indicate that the higher risk of cell phone users in driving is associated with a broader pattern of behaviors that are likely to increase the overall risk of crash involvement.
Change blindness is an important contributory root of looked-but-failed-to-see errors, but when using change blindness paradigm to study drivers’ change detection in road environment, the results of driving experience effect were conflict in previous literatures. In the current study we revealed the driving experience effect by a modified change blindness paradigm. Then we recorded the eye movements of participants with different level of driving experience and found that in the observing stage novice drivers started to fix on the crucial area as early, and had as many fixations on it, as experienced drivers did, but in judging stage their visual attention distribution was more like non-drivers. Finally we proved that this deficiency of visual attention distributed to the crucial area in judging stage was a bottleneck in visual processing which causing novice drivers’ failure in change detection.
The findings in the current study would help researchers deeperly understand the relations between aberrant driving behaviors and driving accident, as well as the behavioral and psychological mechanism of aberrant driving behaviors, and provide new ideas for the practice of reducing accidents.
|赵楠. 不良驾驶者事故风险的深层原因探究 ——不良驾驶者的驾驶操作、行为倾向性与视觉注意特征[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.|