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不良驾驶者事故风险的深层原因探究 ——不良驾驶者的驾驶操作、行为倾向性与视觉注意特征
其他题名Exploring the Causes of High-Aberrant Drivers’ High Accident Risk ------ The High-Abettant Drivers’ Driving Performance, Driving Style and Visual Attention in Driving
赵楠
学位类型博士
导师傅小兰 ; 陈文锋
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词不良驾驶行为 不良驾驶者 DBQ 手机 变化盲
摘要道路交通事故是现代人类社会所面临的重大挑战,而人的行为,尤其是驾驶者的不良驾驶行为(aberrant driving behavior)是造成交通事故的重要原因。不良驾驶行为具有3个相对独立的类别:失误(errors)、疏忽(lapses)和违规(violations),驾驶者不良驾驶行为的总体水平可通过曼彻斯特驾驶者行为问卷(DBQ)测得。
不良驾驶者,即在日常驾驶中做出较多不良驾驶行为的驾驶者,通常具有更高的事故率,而如何减少不良驾驶行为、降低这一群体的事故率则成为一个兼具理论与实践意义的重要课题。对不良驾驶者事故风险原因的研究是找到降低事故率方法的前提,而现有的此类研究多基于调查统计,少见深入、系统的实证研究和对不良行为背后认知机制的探究。
本研究从不良驾驶行为的界定出发,在不良驾驶行为总体水平和典型的不良驾驶行为这两个层次上,对不良驾驶者高事故风险的原因进行系统的、多角度的探究。首先,我们在研究一中采用自然实验的方法,测量了高DBQ分数驾驶者在真实驾驶中的操作特征,发现高违规分数驾驶者具有更快的速度、更不稳定的车辆姿态控制、更多的变道和更突然的变速等具有风险性的驾驶操作特征,高疏忽分数驾驶者具有更高的方向盘反转率等特征。这些结果为理解DBQ分数与事故率的关系提供了客观测量的依据。之后,我们选取DBQ的违规和失误两维度上典型的不良驾驶行为进行了深入研究。
在驾驶中使用手机是一种典型的违规,驾驶中手机使用者的高事故率和手机使用对驾驶操作的干扰都得到大量研究证实,而此类不良驾驶者在手机使用之外的驾驶行为特征却少有研究者关注。研究二中我们采用自然实验与问卷调查相结合的方法,发现在驾驶中频繁使用手机的驾驶者在实际驾驶操作、驾驶态度、驾驶行为习惯等方面均具有明显的风险倾向。这提示我们驾驶中手机使用者高事故率的原因可能是其驾驶行为模式的风险倾向而非手机使用本身。
“视而不见”是驾驶中一类常见的失误,变化盲范式为研究此类失误背后的视觉认知机制提供了可能的途径。研究三中我们采用实验室实验的方法,首先对经典的变化盲范式进行改进,引入了类似真实驾驶的视觉注意分配模式,并发现驾驶者和非驾驶者在变化检测绩效上的显著差异;之后,我们对具有不同驾驶经验水平的被试在变化检测任务中的眼动进行测量,发现新手驾驶者在观察阶段对关键位置注视的开始时间和频次与经验驾驶者相似,而在判断阶段却与非驾驶者处于同一水平;最后,我们通过实验验证了这种在场景更新后对关键位置的注意分配不足,是导致新手驾驶者易发“视而不见”失误的一个关键认知环节。
通过从上述三个角度对不良驾驶者事故风险深层原因的探究,本研究增进了对于不良驾驶行为与事故的关系、以及不良驾驶行为背后行为与心理机制的理解,并为减少不良驾驶行为、降低事故率提供了新的思路。
其他摘要 Traffic accident poses a great threat on road users in everyday life. Although there are many factors underlie an accident, human behavior, especially the aberrant driving behavior is generally cited as the most frequent cause of accidents. The aberrant driving behavior is composed with three categories: errors, lapses and violations. The general level of the aberrant driving behavior conducted by a driver could be measured using the Manchester Drivers Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ).
The high-aberrant drivers, who have relatively higher frequency of aberrant driving behaviors, are usually associated with higher crash risk. In order to lower down the frequency of aberrant behaviors of high-aberrant drivers and reduce the crash risk of them, it is necessary to figure out the reason why the high-aberrant drivers have higher accident rates. This issue has been explored by many researchers mainly through investigations with self-reported data and accidents records, lacking of empirical data from real driving test and in-depth study on the cognitive mechanism of aberrant driving behaviors.
This project would systematically explore the underlying reasons of high-aberrant drivers’ higher accident risk on two levels: the general frequency of aberrant driving behaviors measured by DBQ, and the typical aberrant driving behaviors of different categories. First, the features of driving performance of the drivers with high DBQ scores in real driving were measured through a naturalistic experiment, where we found that the high-violation drivers had higher average velocity, more fluctuating vehicle positions, more lane changes, longer time in the leftmost lane and more abrupt accelerations or brakes, and the high-lapses drivers had higher steering wheel reversal rate. These results provide a reasonable explanation for the frequently observed positive relationship between DBQ scores and accident rates.
Cell phone use in driving and “looked but failed to see” phenomenon were chosen to be explored in depth as typical behaviors of DBQ violations dimension and errors dimension. The higher crash risk of the drivers who use cell phone while driving has been extensively reported and the impairment of driving performance when drivers using a cell phone has also been proved by many lab experiments, however, few literatures paid attention to those drivers’ driving behavior beyond the cell phone use. In the present study we found that the drivers who frequently use cell phone while driving have the riskier driving behavior style, including more aggressive driving performance, more positive attitude towards taking risk in driving and higher DBQ violations scores. These results indicate that the higher risk of cell phone users in driving is associated with a broader pattern of behaviors that are likely to increase the overall risk of crash involvement.
Change blindness is an important contributory root of looked-but-failed-to-see errors, but when using change blindness paradigm to study drivers’ change detection in road environment, the results of driving experience effect were conflict in previous literatures. In the current study we revealed the driving experience effect by a modified change blindness paradigm. Then we recorded the eye movements of participants with different level of driving experience and found that in the observing stage novice drivers started to fix on the crucial area as early, and had as many fixations on it, as experienced drivers did, but in judging stage their visual attention distribution was more like non-drivers. Finally we proved that this deficiency of visual attention distributed to the crucial area in judging stage was a bottleneck in visual processing which causing novice drivers’ failure in change detection.
The findings in the current study would help researchers deeperly understand the relations between aberrant driving behaviors and driving accident, as well as the behavioral and psychological mechanism of aberrant driving behaviors, and provide new ideas for the practice of reducing accidents.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19781
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
赵楠. 不良驾驶者事故风险的深层原因探究 ——不良驾驶者的驾驶操作、行为倾向性与视觉注意特征[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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