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疼痛相关信息优势捕获注意效应及其神经机制
其他题名Pain-related information captures attention: dominancy and neural mechanisms
郑春
学位类型硕士
导师罗非 ; 王锦琰
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词疼痛相关信息 注意捕获 注意瞬脱 慢性痛 注意的时间分布
摘要疼痛相关信息能够以自下而上(bottom-up)或自上而下(top-down)的方式捕获注意。以往考察疼痛相关信息捕获注意的研究多采用注意空间分布的范式,并且只涉及了bottom-up 的注意捕获。本研究中,我们采用快速呈现视觉序列(rapid serial visual presentation,RSVP)范式,从注意时间分布的角度,在健康被试和三叉神经痛患者中,考察了任务无关(即,bottom-up 注意加工模式)和任务相关(即,top-down 注意加工模式)两种条件下疼痛相关信息诱发的注意瞬脱(pain-information-induced attentional blink,PAB)效应及其神经机制,另外,还探索了疼痛相关信息捕获注意的程度与个体人格特征之间的关系。注意瞬脱(AB)效应指的是,在相隔较短时间内出现的两个视觉刺激,如果第二个刺激(T2)出现在第一个刺激(T1)后的200-500 ms 范围内,则被试对T2 的识别率显著降低,即出现瞬间的注意缺失。疼痛相关信息诱发注意瞬脱(PAB)效应指的是,相对于中性条件,疼痛条件造成的AB 效应更显著,即注意被干扰的程度更大。
本研究的主要结果如下。
(一)对于健康被试:
1. 在任务无关和任务相关两种条件下,采用直接的疼痛面孔和间接的预示疼痛的中性信号都能诱发显著的AB 效应。与任务无关条件相比,任务相关的疼痛面孔和疼痛预期信号会诱发更强的AB。更重要的是,在两种条件下,疼痛相关刺激(即,疼痛面孔和疼痛信号)都能诱发比疼痛无关刺激(即,中性面孔和非痛信号)更强的AB 效应,我们将其命名为PAB 效应。
2. 疼痛相关刺激诱发的AB 效应与疼痛灾难化问卷得分特别是反刍分量表和无助分量表以及疼痛焦虑症状问卷的逃避疼痛分量表得分都具有正相关关系,表明关于疼痛的灾难化想法和焦虑程度越高,疼痛相关刺激对目标识别的干扰越强。
3. 在任务无关条件下,疼痛预期信号诱发的PAB 效应主要反映在N2-P3b成分上,表现为对P3b 波幅的抑制,并且N2 成分波幅随着PAB 效应的增加而减小。任务相关条件下并没有发现类似的结果。
(二)对于慢性痛患者:
没有在三叉神经痛患者及其健康对照中发现疼痛面孔诱发的AB 或PAB 效应。
根据以上结果,我们得出以下结论:
1. 在任务无关和任务相关条件下均发现PAB 效应,表明能够传递疼痛信息的刺激可以在bottom-up 和top-down 加工中都表现出捕获注意的能力;任务相关条件下的疼痛面孔和疼痛预期信号诱发的AB 效应大于任务无关的刺激,证明top-down 加工中对注意的捕获能力强度高于bottom-up 加工。
2. 疼痛预期信号也能够诱发AB 及PAB 效应,表明不仅直接的疼痛情境能捕获注意,并且与疼痛刺激相关联的中性环境信息也能够产生类似的注意捕获效应,提示疼痛相关信息对注意资源的占用较一般信息具有优势性。
3. 疼痛相关刺激诱发的AB 效应与几种特质的相关性表明该效应受到人格因素的调节,并且这种调节是通过影响疼痛相关的认知和情绪实现的。PAB 效应反映为对P3b 波幅的抑制以及与N2 波幅的相关,表明疼痛相关信息对注意的优势捕获体现为对容量有限的注意系统的干扰,使之难以对其他目标刺激进行选择加工和巩固。
总之,本研究首次将AB 范式引入疼痛研究,根据注意的不同加工模式探索了疼痛相关信息对注意捕获的时间分布特征,一方面证明了PAB 效应的存在,另一方面初步揭示了介导PAB 效应的人格特质及神经活动变化。
其他摘要Pain-related information can capture attention in an automatic (bottom-up) fashion or an intentional (top-down) fashion. Previous studies have examined attentional capture by pain-related information using spatial attention paradigms that involve mainly a bottom-up mechanism. In the current study, we investigated the pain-information-induced attentional blink (PAB) using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task, and compared the effects of task-irrelevant and task-relevant pain distractors in both healthy subjects and patients with trigeminal neuralgia. The underlying neural mechanisms were explored with event-related potentials. Relationships between AB, PAB and individual personality traits were also examined. The AB effect refers to that response accuracy for a second target (T2) is reduced when it is presented during 200-500 ms after the first target (T1), i.e., a transient attentional impairment. The PAB refers to that the AB magnitude (i.e., difference in T2 performance between short and long lags) in the pain condition is stronger than that in the neutral condition.
The main results are summarized as follows.
Firstly, in healthy participants:
1. In both task-irrelevant and task-relevant conditions, painful faces and cues of impending pain could produce significant AB effects. The AB effects in pain conditions (painful faces and cues of impending pain) were greater in task-relevant condition than in task-irrelevant condition. More importantly, the AB effects induced by painful faces and cues of impending pain were stronger than that induced by neutral faces and no-pain cues, which we called a pain-information-induced attentional blink (PAB) effect.
2. Positive correlations were found between the AB effect in pain condition and scores of Pain Catastrophizing Scale (especially rumination subscale and helplessness subscale), as well as Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (especially escape/avoidance subscale), indicating that catastrophizing thought about pain and pain anxiety predicted the post-target processing deficit.
3. In task-irrelevant condition, the PAB effect induced by pain cues was reflected as a reduction in P3b evoked potential component, and the N2 amplitude was decreased linearly with increased PAB. No such effect was found in task-relevant condition.
Secondly, in patients with trigeminal neuralgia:
We failed to found the AB effect in pain condition as well as PAB effect in patients with trigeminal neuralgia and their healthy controls.
From the above results we draw the following conclusions.
1. The observed PAB effects in both tasks indicate that pain-related information processed in top-down or bottom-up ways can preferentially capture attention. The fact that AB effect in task-relevant condition is greater than that in task-irrelevant condition suggests that ability of attentional capturing in top-down processing is stronger than that in bottom-up processing.
2. The AB and PAB effects induced by pain cues demonstrates that, not only direct painful scene, but also neutral information associated with pain, are capable of capturing one’s attention. Thus, the pain-related information has an advantage of capturing and holding attention as compared to general information that is not salient.
3. The positive correlations between pain-related AB and personality traits provide evidence that personality may modulate the AB by influencing pain-related cognition and emotion. Additionally, the effects reflected on N2-P3b evoked potential components indicate that the PAB may result from interference with limited-capacity processing by pain-related stimuli, thus leading to the failure of selection (N2) and consolidation (P3b) of another target into working memory.
In summary, the present study was the first to introduce AB paradigm into pain studies, investigating temporal dynamics of attention allocation using pain-related visual stimuli. We have demonstrated for the first time the pain-related attentional blink effect, and revealed the elementary mechanisms, both in personality dimensions and in cortical evoked potentials, underlying the PAB effect.
学科领域认知神经科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19783
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
郑春. 疼痛相关信息优势捕获注意效应及其神经机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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