PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
太极拳锻炼调节情绪的神经生理机制
其他题名The Neurophysiological Mechanism of Tai Chi Chuan Practice on Emotional Regulation
岳晓林
学位类型硕士
导师魏高峡
2016-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词太极拳 有氧运动 情绪健康 生理神经机制 本体感受 楔叶
摘要情绪问题不仅严重影响个体的⾝⼼健康,还影响社会的发展和进步。太极拳是中国传统锻炼养⽣项⽬之⼀,在西⽅的替代医学的⼲预和治疗中扮演着重要⾓⾊。⽬前已有研究⽀持了太极拳对抑郁、焦虑、应激等负性情绪的改善效果,以及对正性情绪的促进作⽤。但现有研究多停留在⾏为⽔平,对于它是如何作⽤于个体⾝⼼,发挥其调节情绪的作⽤,缺乏具有实证⽀持的理论假说和相应的机制。本⽂从太极拳作为⼀种包含有氧运动、冥想和深长呼吸的综合性运动出发,在⽣理与⾏为研究的基础上结合核磁共振技术来探讨太极拳促进情绪健康的机制,为今后体育锻炼领域健康效应的机制研究提供有价值的理论导向和⽅法学启⽰。 
本研究招募了两组被试,分别为太极拳组和对照组,拟从多个层⾯阐明太极拳锻炼对情绪表现的影响以及内在的机制:
在⼼理层⾯,采⽤情绪图⽚评定任务范式和本体感受多维评估问卷(MAIA)分别对两组被试(太极拳组14⼈,对照组25⼈)进⾏测评,结果发现,太极拳组对负性⾼唤醒情绪图⽚的唤醒评分显著⾼于对照组、效价得分显著显著低于对照组,对中性情绪图⽚的唤醒评分显著低于对照组,对正性低唤醒效价评分显著⾼于对照组;本体感受的注意、注意调节、⾃我调控维度得分显著⾼于对照组,⼲扰得分显著低于对照组;其中太极拳组被试的技能⽔平与对中性情绪图⽚的唤醒评分呈显著负相关,与本体感受的注意维度得分呈显著正相关。该结果证实太极拳能显著增强个体对有效刺激如正性、负性图⽚的敏感性,降低对⽆意义刺激如中性刺激的敏感性,并且能够提⾼个体对本体感受的注意、调控能⼒,抵抗⾝体负⾯信息的能⼒。此外,太极拳的技能⽔平越⾼,个体对情绪和本体感受性的调节能⼒越强;
在⽣理层⾯,采⽤Biopac⽣理多导仪分别采集两组被试(太极拳组23⼈,对照组25⼈)在安静休息和腹式呼吸状态下的⼼率变异性(HRV)和呼吸(幅值、频率)指标,结果发现,太极拳组在安静休息状态下呼吸幅值显著⾼于对照组;在腹式呼吸状态下,太极拳组的呼吸频率显著低于对照组;在⼼率变异性上,太极拳组HRV的低频振幅(LF)、 标准低频振幅 (nLF)、低频⾼频振幅⽐(LF/HF)显著⾼于对照组,标准⾼频振幅(nHF)  、超⾼频(VHF)显著低于对照组。其中低频成分与其对负性低唤醒情绪图⽚的效价评分呈较强的负相关,超⾼频成分与其对中性情绪图⽚的效价评分呈显著的负相关,低频⾼频⽐与对正性⾼唤醒情绪图⽚的唤醒评分呈较强正相关趋势,本结果从⽣理学⾓度系统证实了太极拳的呼吸⽅式能有效提⾼⾃主神经系统的平衡性,达到情绪放松效果,同时也部分阐明了太极拳在放松训练功效中的实践意义;
在⼤脑结构层⾯,采⽤核磁共振成像技术分别对两组被试(具体⼈数同上)进⾏⼤脑结构的扫描,结果表明,太极拳组在右脑楔叶⽪层厚度显著⼤于对照组。偏相关分析发现,右脑楔叶⽪层厚度与 HRV 的 LF 成份、LF/HF 呈显著正相关,与腹式呼吸状态下的呼吸频率呈显著负相关。该结果提⽰,太极拳锻炼可以显著改变相关脑结构,与⽣理和⾏为指标的相关关系同时表明,太极拳可能通过调控相关⾃主神经系统的平衡性,改善对外界情绪环境的认知,同时改变相关⼤脑结构,从⽽达到促进情绪健康的⽬的。
综合本⽂研究,我们发现:在⾏为学⽔平,对于负性⾼唤醒刺激,太极拳锻炼能够显著提⾼其唤醒度,降低其效价;对于中性刺激,太极拳锻炼能显著降低其唤醒度;对于正性低唤醒刺激,太极拳锻炼能够增强其效价评价。在⽣理学⽔平,太极拳锻炼能够显著增加安静休息状态下的呼吸深度和提⾼了腹式呼吸时的⼼率变异性。在⼤脑结构⽔平,太极拳锻炼显著增加了右脑楔叶的⽪层厚度。相关分析表明,右脑楔叶⽪层厚度与太极拳锻炼者的⽣理状态优化⽔平⾼度相关,技能⽔平能部分预测太极拳锻炼者的情绪反应和⽣理状态。本研究结果⼀⽅⾯提⽰,太极拳锻炼提⾼了对环境中有意义的情绪刺激如负性的敏感性,且这些情绪反应的变化可能是通过改变对注意的调节与更强的本体感知能⼒,调节⽣理反应和有关⼤脑结构,最终实现对情绪的调节和促进。另⼀⽅⾯,虽然情绪反应与⼤脑结构指标没有发现具有显著关联,但情绪与⽣理以及⽣理与脑结构的两两相关提⽰,情绪变化与⼤脑结构之间的关系是多样复杂的,太极拳锻炼引起的情绪变化,在⽣理学⽔平能够找到较为明确的⽣理学标记,但在⼤脑神经系统⽔平可能远⾮⼤脑结构这⼀单⼀指标所能表达的,尚需要在⼤脑功能⽔平,如对情绪任务的分析以及静息态的分析进⾏更加深⼊的数据挖掘,从⽽更加全⾯地揭⽰太极拳影响情绪状态的机制。
其他摘要An increasing body of multidisciplinary literature have documented the beneficial influence of physical activity on mental health and clinical treatment. Much evidence documents the positive effects of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) on negative emotions, such as depression, anxiety, stress, and positive emotions. It was thought that these mechanims are still need to be clarified. From the physical, psychological, and brain perspectives, this article intended to explore the underlying mechanism of TCC’s effect on emotional regulation.
Three groups: TCC and the control group are included to elucidate its mechanisms from the multiple levels:
The psychological aspect: In this study, we recruited 14 TCC practitioners,and 25 controls matched by age, gender and education to examine the effect of TCC practice in behavioral level. The results showed that the score of arousal assess to negative high arousal pictures were significantly higher in the TCC practitioners relative to controls, however the score of valence assess to negative high arousal pictures were significantly lower relative to controls; the score of arousal assess to neutral pictures were significantly lower relative to controls; the score of valence assess to positive low arousal pictures were significantly higher in the TCC practitioners relative to controls. The score of attention rules, self control in MAIA(Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness) were significantly higher in the TCC practitioners relative to controls; , The score of disturb in MAIA, were significantly lower in the TCC practitioners relative to controls. The performance of skill in the TCC practitioners have a strong negative correlation with the score of arousal assess to neutral pictures, and have a strong positive correlation with the score of attention in MAIA. We verified that TCC practitioners promoted emotions by regulating the emotional assess and awareness to themselves and
the environment, the higher the skill performance the stronger the regulation.
The physiological aspect: In this study, we recruited 23 TCC practitioners,and 25 controls
matched by age, gender and education to examine the effect of TCC practice on the autonomic nervous system during a resting state and during an abdominal breathing state. The results showed that therespiratory amplitude were higher in the TCC practitioners relative to controls during the resting state,the frequency was significantly lower in the TCC practitioners relative to controls during the abdominal breathing state; the low frequency (LF) components and normalized low frequency (nLF) components
and the low frequency/high frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio) were significantly higher, whereas the normalized high frequency (nHF) and the very high frequency (VHF) was significantly lower in the TCC practitioners relative to controls during the abdominal breathing state. The significant correlations between HRV components in the abdominal breathing state and the assess score of the pictures were founded. There was no significant difference in the HRV measures during the resting state between the three groups. Considering all of these findings, we suggest that TCC improves vagal activity and the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity during the relaxation state, it may help to promote emotional regulation.
The neuroscience aspects: In this study, we recruited the same subjects as the last study, the results showed that the cortical thickness in right cuneus were significantly higher in the TCC practitioners relative to controls. At the meantime, the significant correlations between HRV components in the abdominal breathing state and the cortical thickness of right cuneus were founded. We verified that TCC practitioners promoted emotions by regulating the sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, the awareness to stimulus and environment, and this change may be occurring in the brain structure.
According to the 3 studies of multiple levels, we came into the following conclusions: in the behavior level, TCC can improve the arousal level of the negative high arousal stimulus, lower its valence; lower the arousal of the neutral stimulus; improve the valence of the positive low arousal stimulus. In the physiological level, TCC can increase the respiratory amplitude in resting state and increase HRV in the abdominal breathing state. In the level of brain structure, TCC increase the cortical thickness of cuneus in right hemisphere, from partial correlation analysis we founded that the cortical thickness of cuneus have strong relationships with physiological optimized components, and the performance can predict the individuals’ emotions and physiological state. We can also have a conclusion that TCC help to enhance the perception to significant stimulus like negative emotional stimulus, and the changes may be worked through the attention rules, strong interoceptive awareness, physiological regulation and corresponding brain structures. We didn’t find any direct relationship between emotion and brain structure, but the correlate relationships between emotion and physiology, the correlate relationships between physiology and brain structure hint us, the relationship between brain structure and emotion maybe complicated, we need the data of task fMRI and resting state fMRI
to explore the underlying mechanism of TCC practice on emotion regulation.
学科领域认知神经科学
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19823
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
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岳晓林. 太极拳锻炼调节情绪的神经生理机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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