|其他题名||The Neurophysiological Mechanism of Tai Chi Chuan Practice on Emotional Regulation|
|关键词||太极拳 有氧运动 情绪健康 生理神经机制 本体感受 楔叶|
在⽣理层⾯，采⽤Biopac⽣理多导仪分别采集两组被试（太极拳组23⼈，对照组25⼈）在安静休息和腹式呼吸状态下的⼼率变异性（HRV）和呼吸（幅值、频率）指标，结果发现，太极拳组在安静休息状态下呼吸幅值显著⾼于对照组；在腹式呼吸状态下，太极拳组的呼吸频率显著低于对照组；在⼼率变异性上，太极拳组HRV的低频振幅（LF）、 标准低频振幅 （nLF）、低频⾼频振幅⽐（LF/HF）显著⾼于对照组，标准⾼频振幅（nHF） 、超⾼频（VHF）显著低于对照组。其中低频成分与其对负性低唤醒情绪图⽚的效价评分呈较强的负相关，超⾼频成分与其对中性情绪图⽚的效价评分呈显著的负相关，低频⾼频⽐与对正性⾼唤醒情绪图⽚的唤醒评分呈较强正相关趋势，本结果从⽣理学⾓度系统证实了太极拳的呼吸⽅式能有效提⾼⾃主神经系统的平衡性，达到情绪放松效果，同时也部分阐明了太极拳在放松训练功效中的实践意义；
在⼤脑结构层⾯，采⽤核磁共振成像技术分别对两组被试（具体⼈数同上）进⾏⼤脑结构的扫描，结果表明，太极拳组在右脑楔叶⽪层厚度显著⼤于对照组。偏相关分析发现，右脑楔叶⽪层厚度与 HRV 的 LF 成份、LF/HF 呈显著正相关，与腹式呼吸状态下的呼吸频率呈显著负相关。该结果提⽰，太极拳锻炼可以显著改变相关脑结构，与⽣理和⾏为指标的相关关系同时表明，太极拳可能通过调控相关⾃主神经系统的平衡性，改善对外界情绪环境的认知，同时改变相关⼤脑结构，从⽽达到促进情绪健康的⽬的。
|其他摘要||An increasing body of multidisciplinary literature have documented the beneficial influence of physical activity on mental health and clinical treatment. Much evidence documents the positive effects of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) on negative emotions, such as depression, anxiety, stress, and positive emotions. It was thought that these mechanims are still need to be clarified. From the physical, psychological, and brain perspectives, this article intended to explore the underlying mechanism of TCC’s effect on emotional regulation.|
Three groups: TCC and the control group are included to elucidate its mechanisms from the multiple levels:
The psychological aspect: In this study, we recruited 14 TCC practitioners，and 25 controls matched by age, gender and education to examine the effect of TCC practice in behavioral level. The results showed that the score of arousal assess to negative high arousal pictures were significantly higher in the TCC practitioners relative to controls, however the score of valence assess to negative high arousal pictures were significantly lower relative to controls; the score of arousal assess to neutral pictures were significantly lower relative to controls; the score of valence assess to positive low arousal pictures were significantly higher in the TCC practitioners relative to controls. The score of attention rules, self control in MAIA(Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness) were significantly higher in the TCC practitioners relative to controls; , The score of disturb in MAIA, were significantly lower in the TCC practitioners relative to controls. The performance of skill in the TCC practitioners have a strong negative correlation with the score of arousal assess to neutral pictures, and have a strong positive correlation with the score of attention in MAIA. We verified that TCC practitioners promoted emotions by regulating the emotional assess and awareness to themselves and
the environment, the higher the skill performance the stronger the regulation.
The physiological aspect: In this study, we recruited 23 TCC practitioners，and 25 controls
matched by age, gender and education to examine the effect of TCC practice on the autonomic nervous system during a resting state and during an abdominal breathing state. The results showed that therespiratory amplitude were higher in the TCC practitioners relative to controls during the resting state,the frequency was significantly lower in the TCC practitioners relative to controls during the abdominal breathing state; the low frequency (LF) components and normalized low frequency (nLF) components
and the low frequency/high frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio) were significantly higher, whereas the normalized high frequency (nHF) and the very high frequency (VHF) was significantly lower in the TCC practitioners relative to controls during the abdominal breathing state. The significant correlations between HRV components in the abdominal breathing state and the assess score of the pictures were founded. There was no significant difference in the HRV measures during the resting state between the three groups. Considering all of these findings, we suggest that TCC improves vagal activity and the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity during the relaxation state, it may help to promote emotional regulation.
The neuroscience aspects: In this study, we recruited the same subjects as the last study, the results showed that the cortical thickness in right cuneus were significantly higher in the TCC practitioners relative to controls. At the meantime, the significant correlations between HRV components in the abdominal breathing state and the cortical thickness of right cuneus were founded. We verified that TCC practitioners promoted emotions by regulating the sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, the awareness to stimulus and environment, and this change may be occurring in the brain structure.
According to the 3 studies of multiple levels, we came into the following conclusions: in the behavior level, TCC can improve the arousal level of the negative high arousal stimulus, lower its valence; lower the arousal of the neutral stimulus; improve the valence of the positive low arousal stimulus. In the physiological level, TCC can increase the respiratory amplitude in resting state and increase HRV in the abdominal breathing state. In the level of brain structure, TCC increase the cortical thickness of cuneus in right hemisphere, from partial correlation analysis we founded that the cortical thickness of cuneus have strong relationships with physiological optimized components, and the performance can predict the individuals’ emotions and physiological state. We can also have a conclusion that TCC help to enhance the perception to significant stimulus like negative emotional stimulus, and the changes may be worked through the attention rules, strong interoceptive awareness, physiological regulation and corresponding brain structures. We didn’t find any direct relationship between emotion and brain structure, but the correlate relationships between emotion and physiology, the correlate relationships between physiology and brain structure hint us, the relationship between brain structure and emotion maybe complicated, we need the data of task fMRI and resting state fMRI
to explore the underlying mechanism of TCC practice on emotion regulation.
|岳晓林. 太极拳锻炼调节情绪的神经生理机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.|