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中国老年人的幸福感和个体、夫妻及社区水平的韧性因素——以北京为例
其他题名Well-being and Resilience Factors at the Personal, Couple, and Community Levels among Chinese Older Adults: A Study in Beijing
张金凤
学位类型博士
导师张建新 ; 于肖楠
2016-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
摘要心理韧性体现了个体应对逆境的能力。幸福感被认为是成功老化的一个重要指标。本研究基于前人研究的以下不足:1)韧性作为一种心理资源,能够帮助个体应对各种困境,比如自然灾害,创伤性事件等,但它在个体应对老化中的作用缺少研究;2)从人际的观点,配偶在个体应对困境时发挥重要作用,但配偶的韧性是否对老年人幸福感产生影响尚不清楚,并且很少有研究应用夫妻双方自我报告的数据来分析配偶的作用;3)从生态系统的观点,成功老化不仅受到个体和配偶因素的影响,还受到更广泛的社区因素影响,但社区哪些因素(主观因素和客观因素)对老年人幸福感具有保护作用尚不明确。并且个体、配偶和社区的保护性因素如何交互作用影响老年人幸福感需要进一步探讨;4)目前缺乏追踪研究考察心理韧性与老年人幸福感的关系。基于以上研究的不足,本研究从生态系统和韧性的视角,考察个体心理韧性、配偶心理韧性和社区水平的保护性因素与老年人幸福感的关系。
研究一,采用追踪调查,考察个体心理韧性和配偶心理韧性对老年人幸福感的影响,以及中介机制。利用方便取样,对来自北京22 个社区的258 对夫妻(年龄60-97 岁)进行问卷调查。半年之后,对被试进行追踪,一共158 对夫妻完成追踪调查。问卷测量包括人口学变量、心理韧性量表、夫妻社会交换量表(消极互动/社会支持)、老年人士气量表。结果发现,个体心理韧性和配偶心理韧性均对老年人幸福感有积极作用;夫妻之间的消极互动不能中介心理韧性与幸福感的关系;夫妻之间的社会支持对心理韧性与幸福感关系的中介作用存在性别差异,即,丈夫的韧性通过增加夫妻双方的社会支持从而提高夫妻双方的幸福感,妻子的韧性则不能增加夫妻双方的社会支持。
研究二,社区感是反映个体对社区的主观知觉和评价,体现个体与社区关系的一个重要变量,本研究采用追踪设计考察社区感对老年人幸福感的影响,并检验社区感与个体心理韧性、配偶心理韧性三者的交互作用对幸福感的影响。样本与研究一相同,问卷测量包括人口学变量、心理韧性量表、社区感量表、老年人士气量表。结果发现,控制了个体心理韧性和配偶心理韧性之后,对于妻子,社区感对幸福感的主效应(正向)显著,对于丈夫,社区感对幸福感的主效应不显著;社区感与个体心理韧性、配偶心理韧性三者交互作用影响老年人幸福感,即,当个体心理韧性和配偶心理韧性都低或都高时,社区感对幸福感的影响较弱,当个体心理韧性和配偶心理韧性一个高一个低时,社区感对幸福感影响较强。
研究三,考察社区特征(人均公共用地面积、老年人口密度和老年服务)与老年人幸福感的关系。采用横断研究设计,对来自北京32 个社区的628 位老年人进行问卷调查。多水平分析结果发现,在控制了个体心理韧性和配偶心理韧性之后,社区人均公共用地面积、老年人口密度及老年服务与老年人幸福感正相关,并且以上社区因素是通过增强个体的社区感从而提高幸福感。此外,跨水平交互作用发现,相比心理韧性低的个体,社区因素与幸福感的关系在心理韧性高的个体中更强。配偶韧性不会影响社区因素与幸福感的关系强度。
本论文考察了不同水平(个体、夫妻、社区)的保护性因素对老年人幸福感的影响。研究结果提示促进成功老化的干预手段需要同时考虑提升个体和配偶的心理韧性,促进夫妻之间的支持性互动。同时,充分发挥社区的作用以提高老年人的幸福感,比如为老年人提供更多的公共用地和社区服务,为老年提供更多社会互动的机会,从而加强他们的社区感,进而提高他们的幸福感。
其他摘要Resilience embodies the personal ability to thrive in the face of adversity.Well-being has often been considered as an indicator of successful aging. This dissertation is guided by the following knowledge gaps in research on resilience and aging: 1) on the individual level, the indication of resilience as a psychological asset and its role in older adults’ well-being (the actor effect) has not been adequately investigated; 2) in the couple unit, the effect of a partner’s resilience on an individual’s well-being (the partner effect) is not clear within elderly couples, and limited studies used dyadic data to examine the partner’s role in aging; 3) from the ecosystem perspective, the effect of resilience factors (subjective and objective
factors) at the community level on older adults’ well-being has not been investigated in previous studies. In addition, further research questions merit investigation concerning how resilience at the individual level interacts with resilience at the couple and community levels to predict well-being; and 4) there are limited longitudinal studies to demonstrate the relationship between resilience and well-being. Thus, based on an ecological framework, we propose a model for older adults’ well-being associated with resilience at the individual, partner, and community levels to guide the following studies.
First, focusing on the dynamics within couples, a longitudinal survey was conducted to examine the effects of personal and partner resilience on an individual’s well-being within elderly couples, and the possible mediation mechanisms at the actor and partner levels. A total of 258 Chinese couples (age range 60‒97 years) from Beijing, China, joined the baseline survey, of whom 158 couples participated in the follow-up survey. They completed measures of resilience, perceived spousal exchanges (spousal support and negative exchanges), and well-being. Using the actor partner interdependence model, this study found significant actor and partner effects of resilience on well-being. In addition, negative spousal exchanges could not mediate the actor and partner effects of resilience on well-being, and a gender difference emerged for the mediation role of spousal support: actor and partner effects of husbands’ resilience on well-being were mediated by both partners’ perceived spousal support, whereas actor and partner effects of wives’ resilience on well-being could not be mediated by perceived spousal support.
Second, focusing on the subjective factor at the community level, this study examined the role of sense of community as a subjective resilience factor. With a longitudinal design, a total of 258 elderly couples participated in the baseline survey, of which 158 couples participated in the follow-up survey. The results showed that the main effect of sense of community on well-being was not significant for husbands, but it was significant for wives after controlling for personal and partner resilience. In addition, husbands and wives yielded similar results in that sense of community interacted with personal and partner resilience to predict well-being. That is, the weakest association between sense of community and well-being emerged at low personal resilience-low partner resilience or high personal resilience-high partner resilience, and the strongest association between sense of community and well-being emerged at high personal resilience-low partner resilience or low personal resiliencehigh partner resilience.
Third, focusing on the objective factors at the community level, this study investigated the roles of per-capita public land, senior population density, and senior services as objective resilience factors. The sample consisted of 628 individuals (age range 60‒97 years) who were recruited from 32 communities in Beijing, China. With hierarchical linear modeling, this study found positive associations between objective resilience factors at the community level and well-being after controlling for personal and partner resilience, with sense of community as a mediator for these associations. In addition, the cross-level interaction results showed that personal resilience strengthened the associations between objective factors and well-being, whereas there were no significant interaction effects of objective factors and partner resilience on well-being.
This dissertation investigated the protective roles of resilience factors at various levels (individual, partner, and community) on older adults’ well-being. The findings indicate that psychological interventions for successful aging should account for the couple-focused model, which values both the actor’s and the partner’s resilience as protective factors, and cultivates mutual support within the couple. In addition, interventions should consider the role of community in older adults’ wellbeing by enhancing public land and senior services for older adults, which then builds their sense of community and promotes their well-being.
学科领域医学心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19829
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张金凤. 中国老年人的幸福感和个体、夫妻及社区水平的韧性因素——以北京为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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