|Alternative Title||Well-being and Resilience Factors at the Personal, Couple, and Community Levels among Chinese Older Adults: A Study in Beijing|
|Thesis Advisor||张建新 ; 于肖楠|
|Place of Conferral||北京|
研究一，采用追踪调查，考察个体心理韧性和配偶心理韧性对老年人幸福感的影响，以及中介机制。利用方便取样，对来自北京22 个社区的258 对夫妻（年龄60-97 岁）进行问卷调查。半年之后，对被试进行追踪，一共158 对夫妻完成追踪调查。问卷测量包括人口学变量、心理韧性量表、夫妻社会交换量表（消极互动/社会支持）、老年人士气量表。结果发现，个体心理韧性和配偶心理韧性均对老年人幸福感有积极作用；夫妻之间的消极互动不能中介心理韧性与幸福感的关系；夫妻之间的社会支持对心理韧性与幸福感关系的中介作用存在性别差异，即，丈夫的韧性通过增加夫妻双方的社会支持从而提高夫妻双方的幸福感，妻子的韧性则不能增加夫妻双方的社会支持。
研究三，考察社区特征（人均公共用地面积、老年人口密度和老年服务）与老年人幸福感的关系。采用横断研究设计，对来自北京32 个社区的628 位老年人进行问卷调查。多水平分析结果发现，在控制了个体心理韧性和配偶心理韧性之后，社区人均公共用地面积、老年人口密度及老年服务与老年人幸福感正相关，并且以上社区因素是通过增强个体的社区感从而提高幸福感。此外，跨水平交互作用发现，相比心理韧性低的个体，社区因素与幸福感的关系在心理韧性高的个体中更强。配偶韧性不会影响社区因素与幸福感的关系强度。
|Other Abstract||Resilience embodies the personal ability to thrive in the face of adversity.Well-being has often been considered as an indicator of successful aging. This dissertation is guided by the following knowledge gaps in research on resilience and aging: 1) on the individual level, the indication of resilience as a psychological asset and its role in older adults’ well-being (the actor effect) has not been adequately investigated; 2) in the couple unit, the effect of a partner’s resilience on an individual’s well-being (the partner effect) is not clear within elderly couples, and limited studies used dyadic data to examine the partner’s role in aging; 3) from the ecosystem perspective, the effect of resilience factors (subjective and objective|
factors) at the community level on older adults’ well-being has not been investigated in previous studies. In addition, further research questions merit investigation concerning how resilience at the individual level interacts with resilience at the couple and community levels to predict well-being; and 4) there are limited longitudinal studies to demonstrate the relationship between resilience and well-being. Thus, based on an ecological framework, we propose a model for older adults’ well-being associated with resilience at the individual, partner, and community levels to guide the following studies.
First, focusing on the dynamics within couples, a longitudinal survey was conducted to examine the effects of personal and partner resilience on an individual’s well-being within elderly couples, and the possible mediation mechanisms at the actor and partner levels. A total of 258 Chinese couples (age range 60‒97 years) from Beijing, China, joined the baseline survey, of whom 158 couples participated in the follow-up survey. They completed measures of resilience, perceived spousal exchanges (spousal support and negative exchanges), and well-being. Using the actor partner interdependence model, this study found significant actor and partner effects of resilience on well-being. In addition, negative spousal exchanges could not mediate the actor and partner effects of resilience on well-being, and a gender difference emerged for the mediation role of spousal support: actor and partner effects of husbands’ resilience on well-being were mediated by both partners’ perceived spousal support, whereas actor and partner effects of wives’ resilience on well-being could not be mediated by perceived spousal support.
Second, focusing on the subjective factor at the community level, this study examined the role of sense of community as a subjective resilience factor. With a longitudinal design, a total of 258 elderly couples participated in the baseline survey, of which 158 couples participated in the follow-up survey. The results showed that the main effect of sense of community on well-being was not significant for husbands, but it was significant for wives after controlling for personal and partner resilience. In addition, husbands and wives yielded similar results in that sense of community interacted with personal and partner resilience to predict well-being. That is, the weakest association between sense of community and well-being emerged at low personal resilience-low partner resilience or high personal resilience-high partner resilience, and the strongest association between sense of community and well-being emerged at high personal resilience-low partner resilience or low personal resiliencehigh partner resilience.
Third, focusing on the objective factors at the community level, this study investigated the roles of per-capita public land, senior population density, and senior services as objective resilience factors. The sample consisted of 628 individuals (age range 60‒97 years) who were recruited from 32 communities in Beijing, China. With hierarchical linear modeling, this study found positive associations between objective resilience factors at the community level and well-being after controlling for personal and partner resilience, with sense of community as a mediator for these associations. In addition, the cross-level interaction results showed that personal resilience strengthened the associations between objective factors and well-being, whereas there were no significant interaction effects of objective factors and partner resilience on well-being.
This dissertation investigated the protective roles of resilience factors at various levels (individual, partner, and community) on older adults’ well-being. The findings indicate that psychological interventions for successful aging should account for the couple-focused model, which values both the actor’s and the partner’s resilience as protective factors, and cultivates mutual support within the couple. In addition, interventions should consider the role of community in older adults’ wellbeing by enhancing public land and senior services for older adults, which then builds their sense of community and promotes their well-being.
|张金凤. 中国老年人的幸福感和个体、夫妻及社区水平的韧性因素——以北京为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.|
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