PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
疼痛注意偏向的表现与调节
其他题名Investigation of Pain-related Attentional Bias and Its Modulation
孙泽坤
学位类型硕士
导师王锦琰
2016-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词疼痛 注意偏向 视觉探测任务 眼动追踪 过度警觉 动机 威胁
摘要疼痛是一种复杂的多维度主观体验,它不仅依赖于感知觉系统,而且构筑在认知、情绪、动机等心理特征之上。注意在疼痛过程中扮演着重要角色,疼痛会干扰注意活动,反之,注意也能够重塑疼痛经验。注意偏向是最常用于述疼痛和注意关系的概念,它指得是注意对疼痛相关信息的优势分配、维持倾向与解脱困难。在健康人中,疼痛相关信息具有警示躯体威胁的功能,能够优先捕获并优势占据个体的注意,因而引起普遍的注意偏向。疼痛注意偏向方面的研究存在一致性差,效应量小的问题。以往研究表明可能有其他重要认知因素对疼痛注意偏向起作用。本研究关注的主要问题是什么因素会影响疼痛相关的注意偏向。 
    基于目前疼痛注意偏向的研究进展和存在的主要问题,论文采用经典的视觉探测范式,结合更加敏感的眼动追踪工具,设计了以健康人群为被试两个研究。 
    研究 1在视觉探测任务中采用疼痛相关的图片和词汇,利用热痛刺激造成被试短暂痛经历,并操控被试在任务中的动机水平。目的是探测实验诱发的痛经验是否会引起被试显著增强的注意偏向,以及这种注意偏向能否经由高任务动机而得到调节。结果发现,在注意维持的指标上,受到实验痛的被试会表现出更强的对疼痛图片的注意偏向;同时,如果被试的任务动机高,他们的注意偏向则会得到抑制。 
    研究 2 的目的是检验注意偏向的威胁解释模型。实验采用图片的视觉探测任务,任务完成后之后,要求被试对任务中的疼痛图片进行威胁性的评分。如果个体注意偏向受到图片威胁程度的影响,那么不同威胁水平的疼痛图片会引起不同强度的注意偏向。我们发现在注意初始阶段,相较于中高威胁程度的图片,低威胁程度的图片会引起最大程度的注意偏向;而在注意的维持阶段,随着图片威胁程度上升,被试倾向于回避注意疼痛图片。本实验结果不完全符合威胁解释模型中的假设。 
两项研究的结果表明:疼痛经历、任务动机、对疼痛材料的威胁解释都能够影响个体的注意偏向。我们期望,通过健康人中疼痛相关注意偏向问题的探索,一定程度上揭示疼痛病人注意行为异常的原因,促进慢性痛认知行为疗法的发展。
其他摘要 Pain is a complex subjective experience in which attention plays a crucial role. Pain not only relies on our perceptual system, but also hinges on mental factors in cognition, motivation and emotion. Pain interrupts attention, and conversely, attention reshapes experiences of pain. Pain-related attentional bias is a concept commonly used to describe the relationship between pain and attention, which refers to the preferential allocation and dwelling of attention upon pain-related information and a difficulty of disengaging attention from it. For healthy individuals, painful information warns body threats, so it captures and occupies attention with priority. Previous research of pain-related attentional bias yielded inconsistent results with low effect size, and implied that there might be other cognitive factors acting to pain-related attentional bias.
Based on the advance and problems in present research, we designed two experiments
using visual-probe paradigm and the eye tracking method to investigate the bias in
healthy individuals.
In the study 1, we used pain-related pictures and words in visual-probe tasks. In the experiment, we also administered heat pain to create experimental pain experience in subjects and manipulated their motivation in the tasks. The aim of the study was to explore the effects of experimental pain and motivation on the bias. The results indicated that participants with prior pain experience exhibited stronger attention bias towards painful pictures than those without pain experience. Moreover, the attentional bias towards painful pictures was significantly reduced when participants’ task motivation was enhanced.
In the study 2, we attempted to test the Threat Interpretation Model of pain-related attentional bias. After achieving the pictorial visual-probe task, participants needed to assess the threat value of pictures in the task. If the threat value of painful pictures affects the attentional bias, pictures with different levels of threat will induce different degree of bias. We found that the pictures with low threat value produced stronger bias in the initial attention stage compared to pictures more threatening, but in the attention sustained stage, when the pictures’ threat value increased, participants tended to avoided attending to painful pictures. The results partially corroborated the hypotheses of Threat Interpretation Models.
These two studies showed that pain experience, task motivation and threat value of pain-related materials had significant effects on pain-related attentional bias. Through the investigation of healthy people, we expected to help reveal the causes of maladaptive attentional behaviors in pain patients and thus help improve the treatment for them.
学科领域疼痛编码的中枢调节机制
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19838
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
孙泽坤. 疼痛注意偏向的表现与调节[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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