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大学生焦虑抑郁的正念训练与认知行为干预的比较研究
其他题名A comparative study of the mindfulness training and cognitive-behavioral intervention on anxiety and depression of the college students
孟菲
学位类型硕士
导师祝卓宏
2015-11
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词艺术设计专业大学生 正念 认知行为 焦虑 抑郁
摘要近些年来,因为心理原因选择休学、退学的大学生越来越多,大学校园里的自杀、犯罪等恶性事件也会时常被媒体曝出。我们期望在分析大学生心理状况的同时,能够找到更好的心理干预方法来引导“90”后大学生顺利地度过心理危机期。因此本研究将通过对艺术设计专业的大学生进行短程正念训练和短程认知行为干预,对两种心理干预方法进行比较。通过实验考察短程正念训练和短程认知行为干预对艺术设计专业大学生焦虑、抑郁情绪及其情绪背后的心理机制-经验性回避和认知融合的影响,进而探索新形势下高校心理干预工作的新方法。方法:采用整群随机抽样的方法,抽取某艺术设计学校的学生500人作为被试样本,采用接纳与行动问卷第二版(The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II , AAQ-II)、认知融合问卷(CFQ)、抑郁-焦虑-压力量表( Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale,DASS)、对结果进行描述性统计分析、T检验、单因素ANOVA分析、Pearson相关分析及回归分析。将25名自愿参加实验的研究对象按性别分层后再按辅导的先后顺序进行排序,序号为奇数的研究对象为短程正念组(13人),序号为偶数的研究对象为短程认知行为组(12人),采用短程正念训练录音和短程认知行为干预录音对两组研究对象分别进行1个小时的一对一个体辅导,辅导后立即对研究对象进行第一次问卷后测并收集数据。个体辅导之后进行为期7天的自我练习,通过自编的微信问卷每天收集研究对象的自我训练情况数据,7天自我练习之后再对研究对象进行第二次问卷后测并收集数据。一个半月以后对研究对象进行随访问卷测试并收集数据,对结果进行描述性统计分析、T检验、一般线性模型分析。
本研究得到以下结果:
第一,艺术设计专业男、女大学生在焦虑上的得分(4.94±5.371, 3.41±4.756, t=2.959, P<0.05)差异显著。艺术设计专业男、女大学生在抑郁上的得分(5.27±5.513, 4.20±5.386, t=1.890, P>0.05)差异不显著。艺术设计专业大学生的经验性回避、认知融合、焦虑、抑郁得分在年龄上均没有显著差异(P>0.05)。艺术设计专业大学生的经验性回避与焦虑、抑郁均呈正相关(r=0.546, 0.564, P<0.01),认知融合与焦虑、抑郁均呈正相关(r=0.511, 0.539, P<0.01)。年龄、性别、经验性回避、认知融合四个自变量共可解释焦虑32.8%的变异量。排除年龄、性别两个变量的影响,经验性回避、认知融合对焦虑的解释力为30.8%,此解释力达到统计上的显著水平(ΔF=97.914, P=0.000<0.05)。年龄、性别、经验性回避、认知融合四个自变量共可解释抑郁34.3%的变异量。排除年龄、性别两个变量的影响,经验性回避、认知融合对抑郁的解释力为33.5%,此解释力达到统计上的显著水平(ΔF=108.804, P=0.000<0.05)。
第二,组内对比结果表明艺术设计专业大学生的焦虑、抑郁程度及经验性回避、认知融合程度都随时间变化而降低(P<0.05);组间对比结果表明短程正念训练与短程认知行为疗法在焦虑、抑郁、经验性回避及认知融合上的干预效果差异不显著(P>0.05)。
本研究可以得出以下结论:
第一,艺术设计专业男、女大学生在焦虑上的得分差异显著,在经验性回避、认知融合、抑郁上的得分差异不显著。艺术设计专业大学生的经验性回避、认知融合、焦虑、抑郁总分在年龄上均没有显著差异。艺术设计专业大学生的经验性回避、认知融合与焦虑、抑郁呈正相关。经验性回避和认知融合对焦虑情绪有一定的预测作用;经验性回避和认知融合可以一定程度上预测抑郁情绪的发生。
第二,短程正念训练和短程认知行为干预对焦虑、抑郁情绪均有缓解作用;且两种方法的干预效果差异不显著。短程正念训练和短程认知行为干预对造成焦虑、抑郁情绪背后的心理机制,即经验性回避和认知融合,也有改善作用;且两种方法的干预效果差异不显著。随访的结果说明干预效果可以得到较好的维持。
其他摘要In recent years, more and more college students choose to drop out or quit school due topsychological causes, whilst such vicious incidents as campus suicides and crimes have frequently been exposed by media.In this context, we are attempting to study the psychological status of college students, and figure out more effective methods of psychological intervention to guide the 90s college studentsthrough psychological crisis. Acomparative study of two psychological interventions is therefore madein thisstudy based on the short-range mindfulness training and cognitive-behavioral interventionon college students majoring art design.Wherein, the impacts of the short-range mindfulness training and cognitive-behavioral interventionon anxiety, depression and the psychological mechanism (experiential avoidance and cognitive fusion) of research objects are inspected in an experimental way, to explore the new approaches of psychological interventions forthe college students under the new situation.  Methods:500 students were selected from an art design school as samples by means of cluster random sampling, followed by being tested with AAQ-II(The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II), CFQ (Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire)and DASS (Depression Anxietyand Stress Scale). The results werethen subject to descriptive statistical analysis, T-test, one-way ANOVA analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis. 25voluntary research objects werestratified by gender and then sorted by the sequence of counseling, among which the objects with an odd sequence number wereclassified in short-range mindfulness group (13), while those with an even number wereclassified in short-range cognitive-behavioral group(12). The research objects in both groups werethen provided with one-hour one-to-one individual counseling withrecords of both short-range mindfulness training andcognitive-behavioral intervention.After that, the first post-questionnaire test wasimplemented immediately on the objects, with data collected. The individual counseling wasfollowed by a one-week self-exercise, where the self-exercise status data wascollected by self-compiled Wechart questionnaireon a daily basis. The second post-questionnaire test wasconducted after the one-week self-exercise to collect the updated data. Afterone and a half months, the objects weretested by follow-up questionnaires to collect data, and the results were used fordescriptive statistical analysisand general linear model analysis.
The resultsof the study are as follows:
Firstly, the college students majoring art designpresented significant differencesin anxiety(4.94±5.371, 3.41±4.756, t=2.959, P<0.05) and presented nosignificant differencesin experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion, depression(5.27±5.513, 4.20±5.386, t=1.890, P>0.05) in gender. The college students majoring art designpresented no significant differencesin experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion, anxiety, depression inage(P>0.05). The experiential avoidanceof college students majoring art design werepositively correlated totheir anxiety, depression(r=0.546, 0.564, P<0.01),and the cognitive fusion were alsopositively correlated totheir anxiety, depression(r=0.511, 0.539, P<0.01). The joint interpretation of age, gender, experiential avoidance and cognitive fusion for anxiety was 32.8%. Excluded the effect of age and gender, the interpretation of experiential avoidance and cognitive fusion for anxiety was 30.8%(ΔF=97.914, P=0.000<0.05). The joint interpretation of age, gender, experiential avoidance and cognitive fusion for depression was 34.3%. Excluded the effect of age and gender, the interpretation of experiential avoidance and cognitive fusion for depression was 33.5% (ΔF=108.804, P=0.000<0.05).
Secondly, Anxiety, depression, experiential avoidance and cognitive fusion of college students majoring art design were reduced vary over timeby within-group comparison. (P<0.05), and the short-range mindfulness training and the short-range cognitive-behavioral interventionpresented nosignificant differences between the intervention effectby between-group comparison(P>0.05).
The conclusions of the study are as follows:
Firstly, the college students majoring art designpresentsignificant differencesin anxietyand present nosignificant differencesin experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion, depressionin gender. The college students majoring art designpresentno significant differencesin experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion, anxiety, depression inage. The experiential avoidance and cognitive fusion of college students majoring art design are positively correlated totheir anxiety and depression. Theexperiential avoidanceand cognitive fusionhave some predictive effects on anxiety. Likewise, the experiential avoidanceand cognitive fusion to a certain extent predict the generation of depression.
Secondly, bothshort-range mindfulness training and short-range cognitive-behavioral interventionplay a role in relieving anxiety and depression of college students majoring art design, with non-significant differences between the intervention effect of the two methods. Both short-range mindfulness training and short-range cognitive-behavioral interventionplay a role in improvingexperiential avoidance and cognitive fusion of college students majoring art design, with non-significant differences between the intervention effect of the two methods. The follow up results indicate the intervention effectcan be maintained.
学科领域健康心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19851
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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孟菲. 大学生焦虑抑郁的正念训练与认知行为干预的比较研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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